Análise da compacidade e da dispersão urbana de Araraquara-SP: um instrumento de diagnóstico e cartografia social do vazio urbano
Pierini, Cláudio Robert
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Studies on compact cities have aroused the increasing interest of researchers worldwide. This relevance, controversies and diversity of the point of view create opportunities to deepen research that seekto elucidate the positive and/or negative aspects in the implementation of this analytical model. In this work, the objective is to demonstrate whether the urban area of the municipality of Araraquara has in fact become more compact and/or dispersed from urban instruments inducing the management of the planning and social function of the property, provided for in the master plans in a historical period. For this verification, the rates of compactness and dispersion are calculated, requiring this to access and produce some variables such as urban perimeters approved by law, calculation of different urban areas surrounded by perimeters, urban voids, allotments and their approvals, distances from these in relation to the center, population and densities. This data, when not available in municipal electronic sites of access to information, can be extracted remotely with the aid of the QGIS geoprocessing tool, which generates information and maps with scales and distances in a reliable manner. As a result, the rates of compactness and dispersion are related to changes in the urban perimeter and the approvals of allotments in regions far from centrality, even though there are economic urban voids in areas closer to the center and that present capacity for occupation and consolidated infrastructure. Since Araraquara is a very compact city and not dispersed by the indicators presented, attention should be directed to the mobility and transport system, which have sought to reproduce the movement of little or low compactness started in the mid-1970s, and which although controlled from 2001 with the instruments of the City Statute, impacts the costs of providing this services and urban infrastructure, mainly by the increasing distances. Finally, all the work carried out for the urban area of Araraquara opens possibilities for the creation of an observatory and social cartography of urban voids for other Brazilian municipalities to calculate the rates of compacity-dispersion, aiming to instrumentalize processes of application of urban reform instruments and social function of property for fairer, compact and sustainable cities.
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