Direito à moradia adequada para a pessoa idosa de baixa renda: um estudo quanti-qualitativo sobre políticas públicas habitacionais no interior do estado de São Paulo
Silva, Nayara Mendes
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It is alarming the speed with which the elderly population has been growing in recent years. Faced with this undeniable phenomenon, urban space has an increasing concentration of elderly. In this context, problems are intensifying and socio-spatial inequalities reduce the possibilities of achieving the right to adequate housing. Attentive to this question, the World Health Organization has launched in 2007 the "Global Age-friendly Cities: A Guide", which advocates actions based on eight main axes, in favor of accessible and coherent urban planning for the aging of the population. Thus, this research aimed to analyze the habitability conditions and the functional capacity of the residents of two exclusive condominiums for the elderly: Vila Dignidade and Recanto Feliz, both implemented through public policies for low income elderly people in the city of Araraquara-SP. This is a transversal, descriptive research based on the assumptions of the quanti-qualitative method, with exploratory fieldwork, through visits to housing estates, with the application of the following instruments: the Vancouver Protocol, same resource used in the development of the Global Guide Age-Friendly Cities and the BOMFAQ questionnaire to check participants' levels of independence. The quantitative data were analyzed by means of simple descriptive statistics and the qualitative ones, in the light of the theoretical reference. Were interviewed 40 residents (24 from Recanto Feliz and 16 from Vila Dignidade). As to functional capacity, it was found that Recanto Feliz elderly presented less functional impairment than those of Vila Dignidade. Regarding the analysis of the eight axes of the Vancouver Protocol, the location of the condominiums had an impact on the residents' perception of the city of Araraquara, but Vila Dignidade interviewees were more satisfied than Recanto Feliz, except in relation to their homes. Regarding accessibility conditions, it was identified aspects to be improved in both condominiums, internally, regarding the need for physical adaptations of Vila Dignidade housings, and externally, regarding the importance of improving the infrastructure in the Neighborhood Unit of Recanto Feliz. The results obtained, combined with the theoretical development developed in this study, provided support for the interpretation of what represents adequate housing and how much this aspect influences the quality of life of the elderly person, and consequently, the capacity to enjoy the urban space.