Dinâmica espacial, influências antrópicas e sazonalidade com enfoque nas aves em ambientes ripários do Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, MG, Brasil
Cunha, Isabella Lacativa Dias
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Birds that depends on wetlands has been the subject of studies by many researchers. However, researches in regions of altitude in the Cerrado are rare. The first chapter of the present study aimed to describe the bird assemblages that inhabit the riparian environments and others wetlands of the Serra da Canastra National Park and analyze the associations between birds and their habitats. The second chapter aimed to investigate the basic ecological aspects of tapaculo-de-Brasília (Scytalopus novacapitalis), a threatened bird dependent on riparian environments and understand the effects of fires and the invasion of javaporco (Sus scrofa) in the occupation of wetlands by the bird. Data were collected between 2015 and 2019, from seasonal samplings at selected stretches or points of rivers and small bodies of water, as well as wetlands distributed on the main plateau of the conservation unit, between 1250 m and 1450 m altitude. Nineteen species were recorded in high altitude areas, being two endangered and the other two migrants from the Neartic. There was a significant difference in the assemblages that make use of the eight different types of habitats sampled, and some have a strong relation with certain habitats. The tapaculo-de-Brasília was strongly territorialist, with a higher rate of detection in the reproductive period. The probability of occupation of riparian environments presented fluctuation along the seasons. When affected by fires, the occupation of habitats by the bird was reduced, but returned to the original parameters after the second post-fire month. In the case of areas invaded by javaporco, there was a continuous drop in habitat occupancy over the months. The results of the two studies indicate that the conservation of key species or specific habitats may bring benefits to other conservation priority species. It is urgent and necessary measures that reduce or impede access to the wetlands by javaporco due to their negative influence on the occupation by the tapaculo-de-Brasília, an endemic bird of wetlands of the Brazilian Cerrado.