Elaboração de modelo conceitual para monitoramento de riscos à contaminação da água em comunidades rurais
Corrêa, Rony Felipe Marcelino
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Some practices and activities adopted in rural communities can impair water quality consumed by owners. The Water Safety Plan (WSP) is a tool proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to prevent drinking water contamination for human consumption. The objective of this research was to develop a conceptual model for monitoring risks associated with water contamination in rural communities. The methodology consisted of the following phases: i) characterization of rural sanitation; ii) structuring the risk prioritization matrix; iii) structuring an evaluation and monitoring model; iv) elaboration of software; v) validation of the database; vi) software calibration and validation. As a result, a conceptual model for risk monitoring was conceived as an instrument to assist in the application of WSP in rural communities. The calibration and validation of the software was carried out in rural properties in the interior of São Paulo. The results of the calibration and validation indicate that the hazardous events with the greatest risk of contamination in the properties visited were the presence of feces and the presence of agricultural livestock near the water catchment. Other less impactful events were highlighted, such as irregular disposal of domestic waste and effluents, precarious conditions in water storage tanks and transportation of water to homes. These circumstances were pointed out in the literature and the software made it possible to identify and measure the risk. The software covered the preliminary and evaluation stages of the WSP system, and was submitted to validation and calibration. The monitoring of the WSP depends on the application of prevention mechanisms, such as the software developed, in the rural area.
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