Elaboração e aplicação de ferramenta para avaliação da gestão e gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos urbanos para municípios brasileiros. Estudo de caso: municípios de Araraquara (SP) e São Carlos (SP)
Suquisaqui, Ana Beatriz Valim
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Solid waste generation is inherent to the urban and rural environment. However, the new consumption patterns and the industrial development have changed the waste quantity and composition. With the enactment of Law Nº. 12,305 / 2010, regulated by Federal Decree 7,404/2010, the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS) was instituted, which highlights initiatives, principles, objectives, instruments, actions and guidelines that municipalities can adopt to improve failures management about the subject. It is relevant the use of tools that support the assessment of Urban Solid Waste Management (MSW), so that it is possible to identify gaps and flaws in this management, and subsequently, define actions to improve or maintain the identified situations. The objective of the present study was to develop and apply a evaluation tool to assess urban solid waste management in Brazilian municipalities. The methodology comprised five stages: i) bibliographic survey; ii) identification of indicators; iii) evaluation of indicators by specialists (AHP and consistency analysis); iv) elaboration of the tool and; v) application of the tool in the municipalities of Araraquara and São Carlos. As a result, the set of hierarchical indicators was obtained through consultation by specialists and the structuring of the instrument itself in Excel with VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) programming. The tool, called SAGReS - Evaluation System for Urban Solid Waste Management - was composed of five initiatives proposed in the PNRS (landfill, composting, selective collection, public consortium and reverse logistics) and with 50 indicators, in order to subsidize public managers regarding the demands for actions in the sector. In addition, SAGReS was applied in the municipalities of Araraquara (SP) and São Carlos (SP). Public consortium and composting initiatives were not evaluated because there were not proposals implemented in the studied municipalities, which does not preclude the use of the tool, as these initiatives are included in the program. Indicators aimed at operational control of the landfill achieved high results, but those for the management of MSW were unsatisfactory. Reverse logistics has intensified actions in recent years, surpassing the indexes of some selective collection indicators, which is used below the capacity to use material and labor. The instrument can be used on any computer, without the need to install applications. The dashboard illustrates the indicators, for each initiative, that require careful attention from the manager regarding the planning and execution of these initiatives.
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