Fitorremediação por plantas do genêro Brassica a partir do uso de fitorreguladores
Cabral-Silva, Mayra Dhaiane
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Contamination of the soil by heavy metals has become a global environmental problem aggravated by increased anthropic activities. The accumulation of heavy metals in cultivation environments becomes increasingly frequent and worrying, as these are highly toxic in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. The decontamination of heavy metals from the soil can be carried out through phytoremediation, a promising strategy to 'clean' the soil, through the use of vegetables. For the applicability of phytoremediation, the choice of the 'ideal plant' should take into account the plant species that has rapid growth, high biomass accumulation, and deep roots in its plant tissue. Plant species belonging to the botanical family Brassicaceae, specifically belonging to the botanical genus Brassica, are described in the literature with phytoremediator potential for tolerating excess heavy metals, from the increase in enzymatic activity, total amino acids, production of osmoprotectants, metal quelatization. Although the literature indicates that 'brassicas' can accumulate and tolerate excess metals in their aerial part, plant growth and development may suffer reductions and adverse effects. Although, the adoption of sustainable methodologies to circumvent phytotoxicity, for example, the use of phytoregulators, becomes a potential candidate to stimulate the absorption of pollutants and their tolerance. One of the phytoregulators, widely studied, are brassinosteroids (BRs), which can relieve oxidative stress and increase the antioxidant defense system of plants under stress. Based on the hypothesis about the effect of the phytoregulator 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) on the primary metabolism of vegetables belonging to the botanical genus Brassica, the objective of this work was to compile published information on the phytoremediator potential of heavy metals by 'brássicas', adopting applied methodology with the critical reading of recent publications, performing the screening of abstracts. The exogenous application of EBL will prevent damage to the metabolism of phytoremediation brássic species of heavy metals. However, studies are needed to elucidate gene editing in the improvement of the phytoremediator potential. Given the restrictive measures imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, which suspended face-to-face activities on the Lagoa do Sino campus and on other University campuses, the present course conclusion paper is written in the form of a bibliographic review article for future submission in a scientific journal with high impact factor.
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