Processamento sensorial e engajamento nas rotinas infantis de crianças com Transtorno do Espectro Autista
Elias, Carina Sousa
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Introduction: Occupations constitute a foundation of human existence, being represented by everyday activities carried out individually or in community and that promote meaning to life. As the child develops and the engagement continually expands, it results in a more satisfying life according to each age group. However, the impairment of skills in processing sensory information can impact the performance of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Objective: this study aimed to investigate the relationship between sensory processing and the engagement of autistic children from 2 to 5 years old in their routines. Method: it is a quantitative, descriptive and correlational methodology. Data collection took place through an online questionnaire, with the observation of the child's behavior from the point of view of their caregivers. Results: a total of 56 respondent family members were obtained, 30 of which were autistic children and 26 were typically developing (TD). Two instruments for the assessment of child development were applied, the SPM-P (Sensory Processing Measure – Preschool – Home Form) and the CEQ (Children's Engagement Questionnaire), and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for verification of correlations. It was identified in the results that autistic children showed significant differences in relation to children with TD, in an inversely proportional correlation for the two variables, with the greater the difficulties in sensory processing, the lower the levels of engagement. It was also observed that from the decomposition of the influences of the child's demographic variables on engagement, children who were attended public or private schools showed greater engagement compared to children who did not attend school, and that engagement increases as age increases, regardless of the diagnosis for ASD or TD. Conclusion: it is suggested that future studies can include different age groups in order to increase the understanding of the needs of autistic people, based on the analysis of the impact of variables related to sensory processing and engagement in their daily lives. It is observed then that the use of strategies that increase the child's engagement in their routines is essential to promote greater learning, with the acquisition of new skills for participation in daily life.
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