Metodologias para tratamento de efluentes têxteis: uma revisão
Tassi, Felipe Gomes
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The sharp urban growth causes daily the disposal of high amounts of effluents, both domestic and industrial, in the water bodies located in urban centers, significantly increasing the elements responsible for environmental degradation. One of the industrial branches responsible for the release of a large pollutant load is textiles, since production is voluminous and, in 2018, reached production levels of over 2 million tons. Its effluents, for the most part, have many dyes that were not absorbed throughout the production chain and their characteristics vary from factory to factory and may contain significant numbers of chemical compounds, exceeding eight thousand in some cases, such as acids, chemicals and dyes, the latter being one of the biggest drawbacks of the textile industry. In Brazil, due to the low cost of implantation and operation, the textile industry makes use of methodologies for the treatment of its effluents that many times are not enough to remove all the desired compounds, however, there are alternative solutions for the treatment of these residues that have good efficiency and do not necessarily require high investment and installation area, ensuring new ways to dispose these effluents. This study compiled several scientific studies, national and international, related to the topic of textile effluent treatment, bringing a broad view of how the subject has been approached around the world, comparing the different technologies used, the positive and negative points of each methodology and the limits of parameters accepted for disposal by national environmental agencies, in addition being an essential compilation to help the dissemination of many possibilities for treating textile industrial effluents.
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