Inventário ictiofaunístico de dois rios de altitude do planalto serrano catarinense, alto rio Uruguai, Brasil
Pereira, Karla Conceição
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The fish presence and abundance in local assemblies are influenced by several biotic and non-biotic factors, which work and interact in different spatial and temporal scales (MATTHEWS, 1998). The present study aimed at performing the ichthyologic inventory in the headwaters of the rivers Caronas (Pelotas River basin) and Caveiras (Canoas River basin), sub-basins from the region of Santa Catarina State s Plateau, Alto Uruguai River basin, Brazil. The samplings took place monthly in two regions (lentic and lotic parts) during the period from February 2006 to January 2007, with a total of 48 samples. Nets varying from 2 to 7 cm in mesh size were disposed during 24 hours (starting from 12 pm) and were checked 3 times. Additionally were used hand line, catueiros , covos and tarrafas fishing devices. The samples were properly labeled and fixed in 10% formalin. A total of 162 specimens were caught, 72 from Caronas river (29 specimens in the lentic part and 43 in the lotic part) and 90 from Caveiras river (46 specimens in the lentic part and 44 in the lotic part), belonging to 9 species, 5 Families and 3 Orders. It was registered the occurrence of an exotic species Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) in both rivers. Among the captured individuals, two species of Astyanax were constant on the studied habitats. According to the Jaccard qualitative Index application, it was recorded higher similarity values to the lentic parts from both rivers, although using the Bray-Curtis quantitative Index, it was shown that higher estimated values were seen among the lentic parts from both rivers and the lotic part from the Caveiras River. In general, both the qualitative and quantitative similarities presented relatively higher values, suggesting a great similarity in the ichthyofaunistic composition between the habitats in both rivers. Regarding biomass, similar values were registered to both rivers, corresponding to 6.222,64 g in Caronas River and 7.152,52 g in Caveiras River. The feeding items which presented higher frequencies of occurrence in the stomachs contents were: 22,8% of insects (aquatic stages), nematodes parts (14,3%) and terrestrials plants (13,1%), in Caronas River, and 24,4% of insects (aquatic stages), sand (12,7%), nematodes parts (11,7%), in Caveiras River. It was noticeable that the habitats were very alike in terms of specific richness and dominance. The species Rineloricaria sp, Pimelodus absconditus, Astyanax sp 1, Astyanax sp 2, Oligosarcus brevioris and Oncorhynchus mykiss had occurred in both habitats from both rivers; Hoplias malabaricus was not present only in the lotic part of Caveiras River; Rhamdia quelen was present in the lentic part from both rivers and Hypostomus isbrueckeri was restricted to the lotic part of Caronas River. Comparing the Kr values for the two species of Astyanax sp and analizing the distinct studied habitats, it was verified values upper 1,0 in the lentic part of Caveiras River. The results evidenced relatively low richness of species and low frequencies of occurrence on the ichthyofauna studied. It was also noticeable the predominance of the widely forager species Astyanax sp 1, and the presence of the exotic species rainbow trout in both rivers, which represents a risk to the native fish species at the same time that potentially threaten the fish diversity in those localities.