Exposições ao alumínio em meio ácido afetam as brânquias e a osmorregulação do peixe neotropical Prochilodus lineatus
Camargo, Marina Mori Pires de
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Aluminium is very toxic to fish. Biomarkers have been using to indicate water contamination, however, there are few studies concerning tropical fish species. So, the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus, were exposed to aproximately 200 μg.L-1 of dissolved Al em acid pH (Al group), only to acid water (pH group) or to water with pH 7.0 (CTR group) for 6, 24, 96h and 10 days to evaluate its effects on haematological, osmo-ionic, metabolic and endocrine parameters besides morphological analysis by light and electronic microscopy. Fishes exposed to Al have all haematological and metabolic parameters increased when compared to CTR group. Osmo-ionic parameters were significantly smaller in fishes exposed to Al as much as the Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme and the CC number smaller Light microscopy reveal that fish exposed to Al in all experimental periods showed lesions widely distributed in the tissue and considered more severe when compared to fish from other groups. In the Al group, the main alterations found were hyperplasia of the epithelial cells, lamellar fusion and hypertrophy of mucous cells. In the animals of pH group, the main alteration was hipertrophy of epithelial cells, especially of the CC. Scanning electron microscopy allowed to see great disorganization in the lamellae of the fishes exposed to Al, detachment of branchial epithelium and reduction of the interlamellar space. Chloride cells with sponge aspect were noted in the pH and Al groups, besides alteration in the microcript of the pv in both groups. Transmission electron microscopy showed that animals from Al group have more CC displaced to the tip of the lamellae and that these CC have a less dense cytoplasm, with a smaller quantity of tubules and mitochondrias and nuclei with altered shapes. The thickness of the lamellae is bigger because of the swollen pv and the interlamellar spaces are reduced. There are, also, more vacuoles in the cytoplasm of these CC. Results allowed to conclude that exposure to Al in acid medium impairs mostly the hyperegulation capacity of the fish, since it affects the active uptake of ions in the gills and also caused serious structural alterations in the organ, leading to functional problems, jeopardizing the survival of the fishes in such situation.