Metodologias para tratamento de água residuárias contendo efluentes tóxicos: uma revisão bibliográfica
Rodríguez, Nancy Aracely Eguigurems
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With the continuous populational growth and the consequent urban expansion, human activities that use water generate, throughout their processes, several effluents; which may contain contaminants harmful to both human health and the environment. Water is one of the most valuable and important natural resources we have, being one of the main responsible in the cultural and economic development of society, yet at the same time, being a scarce commodity – especially in developing countries, where the water crisis has hit hard. In the current climate scenario, the possibility of reusing this resource is essential. However; in order for the reuse of wastewater to be possible, they need to be treated before they can be reused or properly disposed of in natura without negatively affecting the ecosystems where they are dumped. There are several methods to treat wastewater containing toxic compounds, depending on the type of effluent to be treated. These contaminants may consist of organic material, metals, phenolic compounds, nitrogen, amongst others. In the review presented here, the following methods for wastewater treatment were compared: biological treatment, advanced oxidative processes and adsorption treatment for wastewater from industrial waste; evaluating the efficiency of treatment from an environmental point of view together with a bibliometric analysis of the studies and publications made on these methodologies through the use of the package Bibliometrix. The demand for the reuse of wastewater increased from 2015, with biological and adsorption treatments being the most studied in the last 5 years.
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