Cenários e sistema de apoio a gestão consorciada de resíduos da construção civil aplicados à UGRHI 12
Gonçalves, Gustavo Henrique Vital
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Construction waste (CW) is currently one of the biggest problems in urban areas, since it is generated in significant volumes, and does not always receive an adequate final destination. One way to minimize the impact caused by CW is through the implementation of an integrated management, which requires an approach supported by decision-making tools. Thus, this research had the objective of developing a computational system as a subsidy to the consortium management of civil construction waste for Brazilian municipalities and to analyze the feasibility of the formation of inter-municipal consortiums. For this, a diagnosis was initially made in the Baixo Pardo/Grande Watershed (BH-BPG) belonging to the 12th Water Resources Management Unit (UGRHI 12) of the State of São Paulo in order to identify the main challenges of an integrated management of CW. For the study in UGRHI 12, data were collected on the situation of CW in the 12 municipalities, through the application of a questionnaire to managers and through visits to the municipalities for on-site surveys of the final disposal areas. Based on the results obtained, it was possible to estimate that the production of CW in the municipalities belonging to UGRHI 12 is 439.12 tons per day, with a per capita average of 131 kg/inhabitant per day, most of which belong to class A (75%), and can therefore be reused or recycled as aggregates. These data demonstrate the need for specific policies for the management of CW for small municipalities. It was also found that none of the municipalities have landfills for civil construction waste, areas for overflow and sorting, and a public recycling plant for class A waste, essential infrastructures for the management of the CW generated. Based on these results, the economic feasibility of three different scenarios for the formation of an inter-municipal consortium for the management of CW in UGRHI 12 was evaluated. The formation of a consortium among the municipalities in which they would share overflow and sorting areas and a fixed recycling plant resulted in an TIR of 78.79% and a VPL of R$ 29,094,983.16 and a payback of 1 year and 7 months. In the three scenarios analyzed it was found that this management model can be viable and profitable, considering that it brings cost reduction and gain of scale. From the needs identified in the municipalities, which hinder the implementation of an integrated management of CW, the appropriate tools were defined for the system to meet the demands, so that there is an integration. Finally, the System of Consortium Management of Construction Waste (SIGECON) was developed. The conceptual model and the instantiation of the three system modules were established. After the structuring stage, the software was coded. After coding, the modules were integrated and the software was validated to verify its applicability. SIGECON was tested and validated in the UGRHI 12. It can be concluded that the support system favors the implementation of the consortium management of CW in Brazilian municipalities, by having control and optimization tools, as well as a database that allows the adequacy of the municipalities to the reality of the region.
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