Configuração da rede de logística reversa de pneus inservíveis no estado de São Paulo
Stark, Felipe Sanches
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The increase in the municipal and industrial waste generation has caused enviromental and public health problems and as a consequence laws exist to address the issue. In Brazil, with the Federal Law No. 12,350 / 10 about the Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos reverse logistics (RL) of some products has become mandatory, including waste tires. However, RL of waste tires has been structured since environmental government agency resolutions propose treatment for tires disposal incorrectly in the environment and new generation of waste tires. Currently, the reverse network is managed by the tire manufacturers and importers associations, and destinations are commonly used are co-processing in cement kilns, and the recovery of rubber and steel as secondary products, by processes such as scrapping or lamination. Increasing transportation and operation costs in the logistics network make the network design critical for the full compliance with the legal goal. This network design is aligned with a planning that considers the financial issues like the minimization of costs or the maximization of profit, while meets the requirements of environmental government agencies. So it involves key strategic decisions, as the location of facilities and material flows, taking into account many parameters simultaneously. The objective of this study is to propose a model for waste tires reverse logistics considering: (i) flows from the output of the collection points (called ecopontos ) to the destination companies; (ii) the possibility of processes as the sorting of used tires in usable condition or not; (iii) the grinding process as an intermediate phase and for which type of destination the tire would be sent. Still are considered fixed costs for the installation of storage centers, for sorting used tires, and intermediary companies, for grinding and separation of components, in addition to the variable operating costs, transportation and potential revenues generated from the substitution of raw materials or fuel in destination companies. The model is a mixed integer linear problem (MILP) with multiple time periods. Experiments are done with a single and multiple periods, finally were present some sensitivity analysis. Other financial constraints as the annual budget and an approach that includes the carbon footprint (CO2) in the transport and processing are explored. The results showed configurations that meet the goal and have a small profit, indicating that storage centers are preferred in places far from destination points and low demand, while the pre-processing companies have opposite behavior. When using the carbon footprint, it was found that the sorting of used tires gain more importance in the view of reducing emissions, because there is less emission in the reuse or refurbishment compared to the manufacturing of new tires.