Preparação e caracterização de derivados de enzimas industriais em quitosana
Adriano, Wellington Sabino
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In this work, several strategies were tested to improve the covalent multipoint attachment of chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A and cellulase on chitosan. Hybrid gels with different internal structures were obtained using sodium alginate, gelatin or κ-carrageenan and by changing the polymer concentration, 2.5-5.0% (m/v) and the activating reactant, glutaraldehyde, glycidol or epichlorohydrin. The addition of microorganisms to the hybrid polymer followed by cellular lysis, the increase of immobilization reaction time and the effect of the reduction of the final derivative with sodium borohydride were also tested. The influence of these variables on immobilization yields, recovered activities, and stabilization factors at 55°C and 65°C, were assessed. Chymotrypsin derivatives half-lives increased from 34 min at 55°C (for pure chitosan 2.5% activated with glutaraldehyde at pH 7.0, 4°C) to 468 min at 65°C (for chitosan 2.5%-carrageenan 2.5%, with the addition of 5% of S.cerevisiae, activation with epichlorohydrin, immobilization for 72 h at pH 10.05, room temperature and reduction of the final derivative). This best derivative was 9900-fold more stable than the soluble enzyme. A maximum load of 40 mg chymotrypsin.g.gel-1 was reached. The number of aldehyde and oxirane groups generated in the support, and of lysine residues of the enzyme involved in the multipoint attachment, as well SEM images of the gel structures, explain the obtained results. Carboxypeptidase A derivatives was analyzed. The results showed that immobilization via epichlorohydrin presented 40% (8.8) more stable derivatives than glutaraldehyde ones (5.3). However, derivative prepared with epoxides groups presented 100% of immobilization yield with 57% of recovered activity being 20-fold more stable than free enzyme after 48h of immobilization process. Derivatives activated by glutaraldehyde, epichlorohydrin and with epoxides presented diffusion limitations with Deff of 5.41.10-12, 5.59.10-12 m2.s-1 and 5.10.10-12 m2.s-1, respectively. To cellulase, assays of immobilization and saccharification of sugarcane bagasse cane were tested. The derivative used in a sequence of three distinct batches, was prepared with chitosan-alginate activated with glutaraldehyde/glycidol being 20-fold more stable than free enzyme. The best enzyme derivative was about 38 fold more stable activated via glycidol. The performance of the system of saccharification was excellent, indicating that enzyme immobilization may be a good alternative to reduce costs of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials.