Dessalinização usando tecnologia de deionização capacitiva
Zornitta, Rafael Linzmeyer
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In this work, different commercial carbon materials that could be used as electrodes for capacitive deionization were investigated: carbon cloth, carbon foam, carbon felt, carbon fiber, carbon veil and activated carbon powder (AC). The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface resistivity, wettability and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The performance in terms of electrosorption of NaCl was evaluated for different cell potentials. The AC electrode showed the best capacity of removing ions, and presented good values of charge efficiency (QE) and specific energy consumption (η) and, thusly, it was chosen to be modified using different techniques in an attempt to improve its characteristics aiming better results of electrosorption. Part of the strategies was the addition of carbon black and sodium chloride in order to improve the electrode conductivity and its macroporosity, respectively. A factorial experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of the AC mass, NA, mass of sodium chloride used in the electrode preparation and also the cell potential, on the capacity of removing ions (R), QE and η. The variables that showed the greatest effect on the CDI process was the cell potential and the AC mass (that create different thickness for the electrode). In spite of increasing the electrode conductivity, the NA did not show any improvement on the electrosorption of the electrode. Afterwards, an individual analysis showed that the use of sodium chloride to increase electrode macroporisity improved the capacity of the electrode to remove ions but just for the thickest electrode. However, it was verified that the increase of the thickness did not implied in a linear increase of the ion removal capacity. This behavior may be attributed to the non-uniform distribution of the electric field on the porous film. Thusly, even the thicker electrode showing a better capacity of removing ions, a great part of its mass was not being used for electrosorption. Additionally, the increase of the thickness led to a decrease on desorption. Those results indicate that the electrode thickness must be optimized. Another strategy to improve the electrode wettability and capacitance was the deposition of silica and alumina. It was observed an improvement on the wettability of the electrode, however those electrodes voltammograms showed an increase on the resistivity and as result, besides not presenting any improvement on the capacity of electrosorption, there was still a reduction of the ion removal kinect. Finally, the last strategy used to improve the AC electrode was the addition of the conducting polymer polypyrrole aiming to improve the electrode capacity of removing ions through the pseudo capacitance effect. The addition of polypyrrole increased the total of ions removed from solution, however, in all the cases, the values of QE and η were worse than those observed for the AC electrode. Due to the polypyrrole characteristics, the drying temperature used to prepare the electrode was reduced from 130°C to 80°C and when this temperature was reduced, it was verified that this variable had a strong effect on improving the capacity of removing ions and the energy efficiency of the AC electrode.