Caracterização dos materiais inconsolidados e mudanças no uso e ocupação do solo na região de Ibaté - SP
Serikawa, Vagner de Souza
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The increased degradation of surface and subsurface waters are attributed to the indiscriminate use and to the lack of preservation of their sources. Given the scope of efficient management in the use of water sources, this paper presents a diagnosis of the area, featuring the unconsolidated materials and their hydraulic properties in different uses and land use. The study area is about 47.08 square kilometers and is located between the cities São Carlos and Ibaté, in the State of São Paulo, comprised by UTM coordinates 193000 / 202000KmE and 7.578 million / 7582000KmN, located in the central region of the State of São Paulo. In such region, there are the bedrock formations Itaqueri, Botucatu Formation and Serra Geral Formation, characteristic of the geological profile of São Paulo. The maps and charts were drawn up in ArcGIS® software. Some of the drawn up maps were: Rocky Substrate and Unconsolidated Material map (update made from the maps by Lemos, 2010) and; use maps and land use for the years 1972, 2003, 2010 and 2012. With such area historic it was possible to identify changes in uses. The most visible one is from 1972 to 2003 where there is a change in pasture uses for sugarcane. The results show that in some areas, the infiltration process has been affected by the use of soil, especially due to the sugar cane crop. The results of the hydraulic conductivity for residual formation of Botucatu are between 10-2 and 10-3 cm / s that show the water dynamics changes in geological materials. The degradation of water resources is evident, in addition to the aforementioned aspects through springs that are dried and drainage channels without the springs and riparian forests. In the study field there is a need for conservation of water diffusion zones since they are essential for maintenance of water sources.