O dimensionamento de edificações de pequeno porte de alvenaria estrutural com as normas britânica, da comunidade européia e brasileira
Souza, Rodrigo Antonio de
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The use of the structural masonry as constructive system has increasingly firmed as economic alternative on the small constructions, mainly in residential constructions of average standard, surpassing its initial vocation in workmanships of social habitation. Besides the traditional concrete block prescribed for the Brazilian structural masonry code, structural blocks of materials and varied dimensions are found in the market. It is presented in this paper the sizing of two small constructions in structural masonry (loft constructions with area less than 200 m2) according to Brazilian (NBR 10837:1989), British (BS 5628:1992) and European Community (EC 6:1996) rules, comparing the results gotten and analyzing the effect of some intervening important parameters in the calculation, such as the architectural project (especially the openings), the supports of the flagstone, the types of block and the kind of shipments distribution on the walls. Relatively to the blocks, structural components of thickness of 14 cm (minimum foreseen in the Brazilian structural masonry code) and of thickness of 11,5 cm are used. Despite this last one has been recently incorporated as a new category of structural block (NBR 6136:1980), it is not contemplated by the code of calculation of the masonry yet, although it is allowed in the mentioned international codes. The calculation especially considers the request of simple compression in not armed masonry, typical situation of constructions of reduced height, and contemplates in details the influence of the eccentricity of the shipment, as formularization of the international codes (subject that the Brazilian code deals with in a very simple way). The international codes used in this paper had been selected by the importance that they possess in the European Community and for being used for designers in Brazil when ceramic blocks or another different material of the concrete are used. Another important difference between the international codes and the Brazilian code is the calculation method (method of the states limits, of more modern conception, and method of the permissible tensions, respectively).