Produção de celulases, purificação e caracterização bioquímico-cinética da β-galactosidase produzida por fungo isolado da região amazônica
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The selection of cellulase-producing fungi is one of the possible estrategies for obtaining necessary enzymes to hydrolyze the lignocellulosic material of plant biomass and thereby contribute to the viability of cellulosic ethanol production. The aim of this study was achive a screening of isolated fungi from the Amazon region to assess the production of enzymes related to plant biomass degradation, in order to select a line for production, purification and biochemical, kinetical and and structural biology characterizationof the ß-Galactosidase enzyme. Therefore, this work was undertaken in three stages, first of all it was performed a screening of 40 fungal strains isolated from the Amazon region through the cultivation in solid state fermentation (FES) at 35ºC for 240 hours, using as substrate wheat bran. It was evaluated the production of xylanase, endoglucanase, FPase, pectinase, ß-Glicosidase and total protein, and the fungi that stood out were: P6B2, the best producer of xylanase, P47C3 (Aspergillus niger), the best producer endoglucanase and ß-Glicosidase and P40B3, the best producer of FPase. These three fungi were selected for the second phase of this work for assessment in the production of xylanase, FPase, endoglucanase, ß-Glicosidase and total protein by submerged fermentation (FSm). The fermentation took place for 5 days at 30ºC and 200 rpm with a source of carbon: 1% of wheat bran washed and nutrient medium. The fungi P47C3, which was identified as Aspergillus niger, showed the best production of these enzymes, being selected for the third stage of this project. This last step involved the selection of an enzyme that has not been elucidated its structural biology. Given this fact, we carried out a study of selection of the medium, purification and biochemicalkinetical characterization of ß-Galactosidase. The Aspergillus niger (P47C3) was subjected to submerged for 5 days at 200 rpm at 30ºC. Purification occured in three steps using: ion exchange column SP-Sephadex C-50 and SP TSK-5PW column, and gelfiltration, with the resin Sephacryl S-200. The enzyme ß-Galactosidase showed a molecular weight of 125 kDa, being stable at pH 4,0, with anoptimum temperature of 55ºC. It was evaluated theKmap e Vmáxap of two substrates, PNPG and lactose, being: 2,204 mM-0,285 mM/min and 2,101 mM-0,75mM/min, respectively. The inhibition of hydrolasis of the substrate PNPG by ß-Galactosidase in the presence of galactose inhibitor product showed a Ki value of 5,01 mM. Finally, the ß-Galactosidase was subjected to crystallization conditions, the best conditions occurred in buffer 0,2M Tris- HCl, with the precipitation agent, 12% PEG 4000 at pH 8,6. Therefore, the unpublished protocol for purification of ß-Galactosidase was efficient and it is possible to crystallize this enzyme of isolated fungi from the Amazon region, which showed great potencial for the production of this enzyme and that the future can be used in industrial application and biotechnological innovations.