Efeito de diferentes fotossensibilizadores no controle de Acanthamoeba polyphaga in vitro
Corrêa, Thaila Quatrini
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The photodynamic inactivation (PDI), used for biological control of microorganisms, involves the action of a photosensitizer (PS), activated by visible light, in order to oxidize organic substrates, resulting in cytotoxic effect. The control of free-living amoebae is important both for its pathogenicity and its microorganisms harboring. Additionally, some species may develop serious infections in humans. The present study evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of PDI in Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Salt of curcuminoids, curcumin, methylene blue and Photogem® were used as FS. Besides, this study intended to observe morphological changes caused by the salt of curcuminoids in the microorganism. The samples were grown at 37 ºC in PYG medium for a period of 48 to 72 hours. Curcumin was solubilized in 1 mL DMSO and further diluted in distilled water to obtain final concentrations. The other PS s were directly solubilized in distilled water. The irradiation light-emitting diodes were used at wavelengths 460 and 630 nm at doses of 30 and 50 J/cm2. After treatments, resazurin was added to evaluate the respiratory activity of A. polyphaga and the samples were incubated at 37 °C for 4 hours. The fluorescence intensity was measured in a fluorescence spectrophotometer. In PDI with salt of curcuminoids at concentrations 500, 1000 and 1500 µg/mL, there was a reduction of 27.7%, 61.4% and 82.5% at 30 J/cm2 and 75.2%, 85.0% and 95.9% at 50 J/cm2, respectively. In PDI with curcumin at concentrations 35, 70 and 140 µg/mL, there was a reduction of 16.2%, 24.0% and 25.7% at 30 J/cm2, and 25.4%, 28.3 % and 30.5% at 50 J/cm2, respectively. In PDI with methylene blue at concentrations 24 and 32 µg/mL, there was a reduction of 14.1% and 28.3% at 30 J/cm2, with no reduction in the concentration of 16 µg/mL and 18.7%, 36.9% and 23.9% at 50 J/cm2, respectively. Finally, in PDI with Photogem® at concentrations 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL, there was a reduction of 20.1%, 37.6% and 53.5% at 30 J/cm2, and 17.1%, 38.9% and 57.3% at 50 J/cm2, respectively. The removal of the PS before irradiation showed that the salt of curcuminoids probably didn t stay inside of amoebas, because the reduction obtained previously was not observed in this condition. The PS was toxic to the amoebae in the absence of light, at the concentrations tested, and the isolated use of light showed no phototoxic effect, except the dose of 50 J/cm2 at 460 nm wavelength. The phototoxicity by doses of light together the PS contributed to the death of the amoebae, being more efficient with salt of curcuminoids. The analysis of confocal microscopy images showed that the salt of curcuminoids caused damage in amoebae, confirming its toxicity in the dark. Therefore, it is concluded that contact with only the PS is already able to induce morphological changes in A. polyphaga, leading some of them to death.