Agregados monetários ponderados: impactos sobre a inflação e o produtos da economia brasileira
Alves, Victor Lucas Pedroso
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The benefits and the costs of the monetary policy alternatives have been debated trough decades, without a consensus of how it should be conducted. The most common instruments are, between other, the interest rate, the money supply and monetary reserves. In the last twenty five years, the generalized adoption of inflation targeting evidenced that monetary policy had been based only on the interest rates, and the new regime demanded measurement on inflationary expectations and inflation sensibility on interest rate changes. However, the monetary aggregates observed signs brought back the discussion of its use as an instrument, since the European Central Bank (ECB) had put weight on the aggregates behavior to its monetary policy decisions. Besides it, Brazilian monetary policy neglects the usage of the monetary aggregates as suggested by the ECB. Therefore, this thesis aims to verify the effects of monetary shocks from Divisia and simple sum monetary aggregates on Brazilian product and inflation considering the period between February 1980 and December 2013. Each asset that compose the monetary aggregates were weighted by its opportunity cost obtaining the Divisia monetary aggregates indexes. Vector auto regression models (VAR) were estimated to study the relationship among variables. Specially, Divisia monetary aggregates showed higher sensibility in each economic scenario considered, even with similar behavior to the simple sum intensities. This seems to be intensely observed on the Divisia monetary aggregates impulse response functions. So, considering the weighted monetary aggregates, the impacts on the product and price level seems to be sensible to the economic scenario according to each economic scenario particularity.