Análise dos critérios para implantação de centros de distribuição urbana em cidades históricas brasileiras: o caso de Outro Preto
Carvalho, Nayara Louise Alves de
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The streets historic cities are designed to support only the traffic of animal-dragged vehicles and few pedestrians. However, the heavy flow of vehicles in these cities leads to negative impacts for city logistics and for the preservation of its built heritage. These impacts are more perceived in the historical center, which is the oldest place in the cities, usually characterized by narrow streets, winding trails and, in some cases, sloping terrain, in addition to being the place where there is a predominance of commercial and administrative activities. A possible solution to minimize these impacts, particularly those related to freight transport, is the implementation of an Urban Distribution Center (UDC). However, prior to the effective implementation of a UCD, it is necessary to do a study about the conditions that may favor its use and to understand the views of stakeholders involved directly or indirectly in this process. The main objective of the study is to analyse the relevant criteria to be considered in the implementation of a CDU to supply the Brazilian historical cities, taking the example of the historic center of Ouro Preto, which is considered a reference to the other historical cities. For this, based on the perception of sustainability (economic, social and environmental), technical and historical criteria reported in the literature, is done a survey with retailers, carriers, residents, and municipal guards of Ouro Preto. Five semi-structured interviews are also carried out: three with public authorities related to freight traffic in the city, one with a manager of the commercial association and another with the head of the office of Iphan, a Federal autarchy that aims to ensure the preservation of the historical heritage of Ouro Preto. To find the relevant criteria, a descriptive analysis and a factor analysis is applied. Moreover, the qualitative analysis of interviews, and the literature review will be used to correlate the results. It is concluded that residents and municipal guards have similar point of views while retailers and carriers diverge opinions among themselves and among the other agents. The carriers have also shown against the existence of the negative impacts of transport. The variables that presented at least 75% of agreement among all the agents were: increase of the level of service; local prosperity; total investments and costs; use of technologies and vehicle size. The factors found for retailers and residents showed little correlation, reinforcing the different points of view of these agents. However, it should be noted that the most striking factor for both agents was related to the concern for the preservation of historical patrimony, by representing 14.31% of the variance in the set of all variables of the retailers and 21.12% of the common variables of the retailers; in the case of residents, this factor explained 23,38% of the all variance.