Estudos qualitativos das transformações termodinâmicas ocorridas durante o processo pirometalúrgico de recuperação de Pb a partir de PbSO4
Santin, Betânia de Oliveira
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This study was carried out in order to gain a qualitative understanding of one of the fundamental processes of pyrometallurgical recovery of Pbfrom the inorganic scraps of lead-acid batteries by the reduction of PbSO4to lead and connected reactions. Within a program of experiments concerning solid-solid reactions and, at high temperatures, solid-liquid or, at times, reactions involving gases, the work described here was an initial qualitative attempt to reveal the possible reaction mechanisms of the reduction of PbSO4 to Pb and the related reactions that can occur taking into account the composition of the lead-acid battery inorganic scraps (Pb and its possible alloys, PbO2, PbO e PbSO4). Since the pyrometallurgical processes includes the addition of C, Fe in filings and, in some cases, powered Na2CO3, the study was centered on the various possible reactions between these components and those of the scraps, with an emphasis on the PbSO4component. For this purpose, the various pure products then binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures were successively studied, to obtain information by comparing the results. The techniques used were thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in the range 200o C to 1200 o C (this last temperature is the highest attained in industrial pyrometallurgicall process). The results showed several undescribed phenomena. The PbO can evaporate at higher temperatures. The presence of C facilitates the lowering of the PbSO4 thermal decomposition temperature. It also diminishes considerably the rate of PbO evaporating by favoring decomposition of PbO to Pb as has been previously suggested in the literature, but until now without experimental confirmation. Finally, the results do not permit a definite conclusion about the roles of Fe or Na2CO3. This is may be because in this study it was not to perform sufficient analytical identification measurements. Nevertheless, from the results, it is clear that the Fe is oxidized to an oxide iron at low temperatures (near 400o C) and it is this oxide which participates in the reactions at higher temperatures. On the other hand, the Na2CO3 is melted and immediately decomposed at about 800- 850o C. Thus, it will be in this conclusion when it takes put in the process.