Fator inibitório da migração de macrófagos : envolvimento na regulação cardiovascular em ratos com hipertensão renal
Barbosa, Rafaela Moreira
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The high blood pressure levels reach about 22% of the world population, increasing the risk factors for coronary disease, heart attack and heart failure. Many studies have tried to understand the causes of hypertension and possible mechanisms to facilitate the treatment of hypertension. The central nervous system seems to play a key role in the development and maintenance of hypertension. Among the various brain areas, we can highlight the role of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), which is the primary site of visceral afferents. The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an intracellular inhibitory regulator of the actions of angiotensin II (ANG II) in the ANG II type 1 receptors. The spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and the rats with renovascular hypertension 2 kidney, 1 clip (2K1C) exhibit an increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, increased sympathetic activity and reduced baroreflex function. We recently demonstrated that MIF overexpression in the NTS of SHRs lowers blood pressure of these animals and improved the function of the baroreflex. Therefore, in this study we tested if increased expression of MIF in the NTS of the 2K1C rats could alter the development of hypertension and improve the baroreflex function in these animals. For this, the left renal artery was partially obstructed in male Holtzman rats (150-180 g) using a silver clip (0.2 mm width) to induce 2K1C hypertension (n = 5-10/group) or sham surgery [normotensive rats (NT); n = 5-11/group] was performed. Three weeks after renal clip placement or sham surgery, rats received AAV2-CBA-MIF microinjections into the NTS to increase MIF expression in the area or AAV2-CBA-eGFP, which promoted the expression of GFP (enhanced green protein), which served as a control vector. Arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded by telemetry and baroreflex tests were performed. At the end of the experiments, the brains were harvested for immunohistochemistry RT-PCR. MIF injections into the NTS attenuated the hypertension in 2K1C rats from 2 weeks after viral transfection until the end of the experiment (4 weeks after viral transfection), (2K1C-MIF: 145 ± 7, vs. 2K1C-eGFP: 176 ± 9 mmHg; p < 0.05). MIF into the NTS also improved the reflex bradycardia (2K1C-MIF slope: -1.4 ± 0.3, vs. 2K1C-eGPF slope: -0.41 ± 0.3 bpm/mmHg; p < 0.05) and reflex tachycardia (2K1C-MIF slope: -4.7 ± 0.6, vs. 2K1C-eGPF slope: -1.7 ± 0.3 bpm/mmHg; p < 0.05). Baseline heart rate was decreased in 2K1C-MIF rats. In contrast to 2K1C rats, MIF overexpressed in the NTS in normotensive rats produced no change in arterial pressure neither baroreflex function. As expected, the transduction of MIF in the NTS increased mRNA levels for MIF at the same site (NT-MIF: 3.80 ± 0.97, vs. NT-eGFP: 1.00 ± 0.16 fold change and 2K1C-MIF: 3.53 ± 0.68, vs. 2K1C-eGFP: 0.88 ± 0.09 fold change; p < 0.05). These results suggest that increased expression of MIF in neurons within NTS attenuates the hypertension and improves baroreflex function in 2K1C rats, possibly through anti-ANG II actions.