Economia solidária e inclusão social pelo trabalho no campo da saúde mental : identificando potencialidades e fragilidades
Mazaro, Lisabelle Manente
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The inclusion of people in situations of social disadvantage at work is replete with challenges that permeate the relations between the subject and the work, the field of rights, the relations of production, among others. This study addresses the inclusion of people at social disadvantage in the workplace, especially those with mental disorders including those resulting from the use of alcohol and other drugs, in the perspective of solidarity economy. Since 2005, the National Secretariat for Solidarity Economy (SENAES) has invested in the national mapping of Solidarity Economic Developments (EES) and the National Information System in Solidarity Economy (SIES), database of enterprises across the country, is the result of this mapping and context of this study. This is a descriptive exploratory documentary study of mixed approach, developed in two phases. The general objective of the study was to identify and understand the potentialities, fragilities and challenges present in the process of consolidation of the EES in the field of mental health registered in the National System of Information in Solidary Economy - SIES. The specific objectives were to characterize the EES registered in the database of SIES and to draw the profile of the EES of the mental health field registered in the SIES database. In the first phase, a descriptive analysis of the data in the SIES database was carried out in order to characterize the registered enterprises. There were identified 419 EESs in the national territory whose membership profile can be attributed predominantly to people in social disadvantage, distributed in: 236 composed of people with physical or mental disabilities; 43 by inmates or prisoners of the prison system; and 140 by people with mental disorders, including those resulting from the use of alcohol and other drugs. The latter were invited to participate in the second phase of the study, in which a qualitative study was carried out with the EES of the field of mental health identified in the first phase. Participated in the second phase of this study 17 EES distributed throughout the country, which corresponds to 12% of the mental health field enterprises registered in SIES. For data collection a semi structured questionnaire was used and the data from the closed questions were analyzed in a descriptive way and those from the open questions were analyzed applying the thematic analysis technique. The results point out that several advances have been achieved so far, among them the incorporation of the principles of solidarity economy, the recognition of work as a right, split from the therapeutic view, participation in solidarity economy fairs, among others, but there are many challenges to be faced, such as the public policies that present themselves in an antagonistic way in relation to the advances and obstacles presented by the enterprises. There was also a need for greater support for entrepreneurship and, when there are established support, these originate mostly from local entities such as city hall, university and church. It was also identified that the participation of mental health users in the ventures brings benefits such as social inclusion, access to rights and recovery of self-esteem, thus characterizing the potentialities in the consolidation process. The fragilities field is characterized by small and uneven production during the year, lack of material, financial and infrastructure resources and the low value of withdrawals, that is, generation of income that is lower than expected by the participants. It is hoped that research on the potentialities, weaknesses and challenges in the consolidation process will contribute to the elaboration ofproposals that will minimize the difficulties faced by economic enterprises in solidarity with people of social disadvantage, especially those with mental disorders, including when resulting from the use of alcohol and other drugs.