Sustentabilidade na gestão dos recursos hídricos: os casos de Quito e São Paulo
Martone, Gabriel Braga
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One of the biggest challenges to the environmental crisis that society is facing, markedly in recent decades, is the shortage of water to supply human needs and consequently the precariousness of working all water-dependent processes. Diverse proposals have arisen in response to this challenge. Despite the intrinsic merit of these plans, those that provide systemic and sustainable solutions stand out. Water funds are established structures for investments in conservation and maintenance of the ecosystem service "water supply" and are organized through specific governance structures, which involve the people in the localities where the fund operates and integration between the different power spheres of society, including public and private. This work aims to study this approach, which is an important strategy for the sustainable management of water resources. In the light of a theoretical model, called the Five Level Framework, this study analyzes the management for the sustainable development of two specific cases, the Water Fund of the city of Quito, Ecuador and São Paulo, in Brazil. For that, secondary data and management documents of both Funds were evaluated, having as a model of evaluation and systematization of the results a theoretical model, denominated Five Level Framework. The comparison of the results of the two Funds was also able to establish as a product a generic model for the evaluation of the sustainability of Water Funds. As a conclusion, the evaluation of the results showed that this management approach favors the improvement of systemic environmental, social and economic conditions within a long term perspective, making possible an increase of sustainability for society and the environment.