Um instrumento psicométrico de coparentalidade: escolha, adaptação transcultural e evidências iniciais de validade interna
Carvalho, Thaís Ramos de
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Coparenting involves interactions between the mother and father of a child for whom they are jointly responsible. However, when a review of the Brazilian literature was conducted, no studies on the validation of coparenting instruments, for use in Brazil, were found. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (a) compare coparenting instruments described in the international literature, and select the one with the strongest theoretical foundations and the most robust psychometric properties, to adapt for use in Brazil; and (b) compare the Brazilian version of the selected instrument with the original version, to verify their semantic, conceptual, cultural, idiomatic, operational and measurement equivalence. Using a systematic search in electronic databases, 35 articles about the validation of eight coparenting instruments were found. After analyzing the theoretical and psychometric evidence, the Coparenting Relationship Scale (CRS) was chosen, to adapt for use in Brazil. Next, an initial translation of the CRS was revised, using the transcultural adaptation process, leading to the preparation of the Escala da Relação Coparental (ERC). In the final step of this process, individual interviews were conducted with each member of 25 couples, who all had at least one child between 3 and 6 years of age. The participants ranged in age between 24 and 49 years, and the couples earned an average of BRL 6,420.00 (sd = BRL 4,598.54), a month. For each item of the instrument, the participants: (a) indicated the extent to which the behavior being described represented their own coparenting relationship (using a scale of agreement, ranging from 0 to 6); (b) indicated if they believed that these behaviors influenced the quality of the interactions established by couples raising children, and, if so, how positive or negative this impact would be (evaluated using a scale from 1 to 10); and (c) gave examples of situations in which they had behaved in the described way. The levels of internal consistency for the ERC were within the expected range for three of the seven subscales. Average subscale scores were high on the positive dimensions (4.53 to 5.35) and low on the two negative subscales (0.63 and 0.78). Between 76 – 100% of the respondents rated each behavior as positive or negative, in accordance with the structure of the original instrument, and their examples confirmed this. Thus, the results of this study indicate that coparenting is being incorporated into parenting relationships, in Brazil, and that the participants’ perceptions of the ERC are convergent with the structure of the original version. However, the ERC must be tested with a second sample, to verify and resolve possible internal consistency problems, in addition to conducting studies to obtain evidence of the validity of this instrument, based on relationships with external variables. If the ERC can be validated for use in Brazil, it will be useful for evaluating intervention programs that aim to increase parents’ positive interactions, with respect to raising their children.