Mecanismos para resiliência na cadeia de suprimentos: uma análise sob a ótica da indústria processadora de carnes
Santos, Márcio Gonçalves dos
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The purpose of this thesis was to identify how resilience mechanisms can promote supply chain resilience in the context of supply side and demand side disruption risks. For this purpose, the construction of the theoretical foundations was carried out using the Systematic Literature Review. The results were systematized in proactive and reactive management approaches, supply chain resilience stages (anticipation, reaction and recovery) and supply chain resiliency management mechanisms (previous, intermediary and response). In the empirical phase of the research, five case studies were developed in meat processing industries in the state of Mato Grosso, medium to large, representative of the sector being three beef, one pork and one chicken. Data collection was done through interviews with managers responsible for the supply sector and with managers responsible for the commercial sector (or equivalent function), document analysis and direct observation. The results indicate that the sources of disruptions that these chains are subject determine the management practices to be developed. It has been found that meat chains develop a proactive approach to resilience management on the supply side and demand side. However, in relation to the ruptures related to the external market, as an embargo on the Brazilian beef exports, the dependence on the decisions of the regulatory agencies, such as the Ministry of Livestock and Food Supply, lead the chains to the reactive management approach, taking more time to react and recover from ruptures. The main risk factors for ruptures in the beef chain are the high geographic dispersion of suppliers and the low development of roads and highways infrastructure, leading these industries to adopt the decentralization of production processes, with slaughter units located near suppliers and units of boning and industrialization near the distribution centers, besides the maintenance of own confinements and independent buyers. These practices allow greater flexibility in supplying the chain. In the case of pork and chicken chains, the risks of supply disruptions are related to environmental factors that affect the raw material production system, such as humidity, temperature and heat. The management practice was the verticalization in the supply, through integrated farms to produce chickens and own farms in the case of the pigs. However, the data showed that this practice reduces supply chain flexibility in situations of ruptures, but it increases supply chain visibility which allows to anticipate the risk factors of ruptures. In relation to the demand side, the main factors of disruption to meat supply chains are the low development of logistics infrastructure, road stoppages caused by indigenous people or members of the landless movement, and embargoes on exports. The beef chain decentralizes production processes and maintains distribution centers in the major consuming regions, the pork chain maintains supply contracts with key customers and the chicken meat chain segments the distribution by geographic regions.