Espanhol para alunos brasileiros: estratégias de aprendizagem sugeridas pelas orientações ao professor do livro didático Cercanía Joven
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The general objective of this research was to identify bridges in the guidelines contained in the handbook and in the textbook teacher that analyzed the mother tongue (Portuguese) and the foreign language (Spanish), classify the types of strategies proposed and discuss the indicators which characterize a specific approach to working with languages close to Basic Education. When we take the guidelines to the teacher as an object of analysis, we seek to understand how the Spanish language teaching is characterized or proposed to Brazilian Basic Education students today, starting from the hypothesis that there is some specificity in relation to the other materials existing in the market because it is a textbook approved by the PNLD of 2015 and therefore "comply" with the "official requirements" of what is considered appropriate at the moment, in terms of methodological guidelines. Therefore, we assume that the didactic textbook, the object of our research, because it was written for the Brazilian context of Basic Education, should offer guidance to the teacher (both in the section called the Teacher's Handbook and along the teacher's copy ) that relate the Portuguese language and the Spanish language. More specifically, we seek to identify which learning strategies (OXFORD, 1990; O'MALLEY and CHAMOT, 1990; WENDEN, 1991) that relate Portuguese and Spanish are proposed by orientations to the teacher and to analyze if they characterize a specific approach to Education Basic, based on previous discussions in the relevant literature. In order to do so, we proceed to a qualitative study of the case, which starts with a bibliographical review on the themes of teaching Spanish to Brazilian and nearby languages (ALMEIDA FILHO, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2012, 2013; GONZÁLEZ 1989, 2008; DURÃO, 1999, 2002, 2004; ERES FERNÁNDEZ, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2017; FANJUL, 2012, 2014, SERRANI-INFANTE, 1998, 2005; CELADA, 2002, ORTIZ ALVAREZ, 2002,2007). As a result, our research has identified that teacher orientation generally emphasizes the use of knowledge-based learning strategies that students already have in their own mother tongue and, less prominently, in the other foreign language taught at school (English) and the Plural Approaches (CUMMINS, 1979, 1983, DOLZ, GAGNON and MOSQUERA, 2009, SIMARD, 1997, CANDELIER, 2007, DEGACHE, 2006, CAROLA and ALBUQUERQUE COSTA, 2014). Among the strategies proposed, the guidelines emphasize the use of cognitive and social strategies, but the compensatory strategy, which helps the student to overcome learning gaps and which is pointed out by the PCNEMs (1999) as the most important to be taught, can be in several of the guidelines throughout the Teacher's Manual.