Natriorexigênese paradoxal: núcleo parabraquial lateral e mecanismos centrais, sistêmicos e comportamentais
David, Richard Boarato
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Sodium intake is induced by facilitatory signals, like angiotensin II and aldosterone Cell dehydration, a classical inhibitory signal for sodium intake, may also induce paradoxical sodium intake if the sodium intake inhibition by the ocitocinergic hypothalamic mechanism or by the lateral parabraquial nucleus (LPBN) is absent. Thus, the LPBN deactivation could modify the activity of hypothalamic oxytocinergic pathways or the gastric emptying control system, another inhibitory system, as well as facilitatory areas and the reward system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LPBN injections of methysergide (4 μg/0.2 μl, serotonergic antagonist) in cell dehydrated animals on: activity of brain areas involved in ingestive behavior by measuring c-Fos protein immunoreactivity and tissue levels of dopamine, serotonin and metabolites or plasma hormone levels; pre-systemic satiety involving gastric emptying; selectivity of paradoxical sodium intake. The effect of disinhibition of the natriorexigenesis on the reward system was tested by repeated deactivations of the LPBN with muscimol (2 nmol/0.2 μl; GABAA agonist) and its effect on ingestive behavior sensitization and water deprivation with partial rehydration followed by sodium access (WD-PR protocol) on the lateral hypothalamus self-stimulation (LHSS). Holtzman or Sprague-Dawley rats (280-320 g), intacts or operated (femoral vein cannulation and/or guide cannulas implanted in direction to the LPBN or bipolar electrode implanted in the hypothalamus), were used in the experiments. Animals treated with methysergide and hyperosmotic by gavage of 2 M NaCl (2 ml) compared to the control treatment (vehicle) showed: (a) increase in ir-Fos in the area postrema and intermediate nucleus of the solitary tract, subfornical organ and non-oxytocinergic neurons of the ventral portion of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus; (b) increase in tissue levels of dopamine in the amygdala, but not in the accumbens; (c) unchanged activity of oxytocinergic system (ir-Fos in oxytocinergic neurons and oxytocin plasma levels similar to control group). Hyperosmotic rats (iv infusion of 2 ml of 2 M NaCl) treated with methysergide and a gavage of 0.3 M NaCl (3 ml) showed a hypertonic gastric and intestinal content similar to the control group (vehicle) after gavage. In hydrated animals with a history of two previous treatments of muscimol into the LPBN, the hypertonic NaCl intake induced by muscimol was higher than the control animals pretreated with vehicle. The LHSS was not altered at any stage of WD-PR protocol, as well as in cell dehydrated animals in comparison with hydrated control group. The results demonstrate that the deactivation of the LPBN enhances specifically the intake of solutions containing sodium and suggest the involvement of the brain stem and the amygdala during the appetitive phase of the paradoxical sodium intake, while the deactivation of other inhibitory mechanisms (oxytocin and gastric retention) seems not to be essential. Furthermore, the repetition of LPBN deactivation sensitizes hydrated animals for sodium intake. Removing the inhibition of sodium appetite by partial rehydration in WD-PR does not change the LHSS reward.
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