Competências da liderança no lean manufacturing e na indústria 4.0: identificação e relacionamentos
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Leadership has been evolved according to the historical moment and advances in production processes. The mentality of leaders who worked in mass production at Ford plants is different from those who worked in the development of Lean Manufacturing. The spread of Lean philosophy has led leaders to act as teachers in organizations, coaching and teaching Lean principles. The rise of technology and the evolution of production processes indicate that leadership must undergo new transformations to direct the organization towards the fourth industrial revolution. In this context, there was a need for research that addresses the integration of Industry 4.0 with other management approaches such as Lean. In order to contribute to this field of research, this study establishes the relationship between the skills of Lean leaders and the skills of leaders in Industry 4.0. In order to achieve this objective, a systematic bibliographic review was elaborated that raised the main competences to be developed by Lean leaders and by leaders working in highly technological environments. Finally, an empirical research based on the opinion of experts was carried out using the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) approach. This approach enabled the Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication Applied to Classification (MICMAC) analysis. With the MICMAC analysis it was possible to identify the competences that have high driving power and those that are dependent. This study presents evidence that the skills of the Lean leader will support those that must be developed by leaders active in Industry 4.0. In addition, a structural model was elaborated that shows the hierarchy between the leadership competencies, indicating those that should be developed with priority. Such results make possible the advance in the state of the art, enriching the literature on the integration of Industry 4.0 with other management approaches. In relation to practice, the results obtained in this work may guide the training of leaders who intend to work in environments that integrate Industry 4.0 with Lean.
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