IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE BICADAS DE AVES EM MODELOS ARTIFICIAIS: AUMENTANDO A RESOLUÇÃO TAXONÔMICA
Furgeri, Jéssica Cristina
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Birds are an important taxonomic group, as they perform various ecosystem services of great relevance to society. They are responsible for assisting in the control of pests and insects, in cleaning the environments and in the pollination of plants. In addition, they can contribute to the maintenance of agroforestry systems and seed dispersal. Recent research uses artificial models to identify taxonomic groups involved in arthropod predation and fruit consumption, and many of them have contributed to simplified levels of taxonomic resolution. However, there is a lack of studies on the specificity of peck marks and possible predators of artificial models, limiting taxonomic resolution. The present study aims to define patterns of the peck marks left by birds in artificial models (caterpillars and plasticine fruits), aiming to create a database of the sampled species. The collections were carried out in a municipal park, and in private properties in the region of Indaiatuba and Jundiaí (SP). 207 red plasticine fruits and 51 green caterpillars were offered to free-living and captive birds. Field observations were made in real-time. The models were collected and replaced as soon as the birds preyed on them. Data analysis was done through measurements with caliper and sample divisions into categories according to the pecking pattern. In relation to fruits, Mimus saturninus was the most sampled species (n = 51 ) and, in relation to caterpillars, Paroaria dominicana (n = 37). Despite the similarities found between the species' peck marks, it was possible to find unique patterns and characteristics for Pitangus sulphuratus and Saltator similis, allowing their identification through the models. With this, it is proposed an advance in these researches, not only quantifying the intensity of predation, but also the identification of these actors at the species level.
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