Um retrato do extrativismo : a sustentabilidade na exploração comercial da ostra de mangue em Cananéia-SP
Machado, Ingrid Cabral
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Currently, the mangrove oyster Crassostrea sp. is one of the most important fishery resources exploited by the artisanal fishery setor of the Cananéia estuary, responsible for the livelihood of 60 families of extractivists for some decades. The production system can be characterized as rudimental, involving the extraction in mangrove and its direct marketing or previous fattening in structures like trays. The oyster is marketed exclusively in natura and depuration is the only form of improvement, involving a few extractivists. The socioecological system of the oyster extractivism has been target of several interventions, since actions promoted by government agencies, to organize the production chain, till external pressures, like the market ones, which act on the management and commercial practices, affecting the sustainability of the activity. The objective of the present exertion was from the study of characteristics, management and marketing practices of the oysters extractivists groups from Cananéia, to identify the factors that affect the sustainability and to provide subsides to support the management of the activity. For that the socio-economical and productive profile of the users was studied, and the production of oysters in Cananéia, the local commercialization processes, the natural stock of oysters and the productive areas were analyzed. The identified groups of extractivists were compared, and the trends relating to the sustainability of the activity in the ecological, economic, social, technological and ethical dimensions were analyzed. The Mandira group, beneficiary of a considerable number of public interventions, was the group whose performance in the analysis of sustainability was comparatively better. In the extreme opposite, the Porto Cubatão group presented the worst performance in almost all dimensions studied, a fact associated with the small group experience in the activity. As the Porto Cubatão group much as all others located in intermediate position, even though tend to sustainability in specific dimensions, are more susceptible to crises caused by unexpected changes in the system. In the Mandira group, in spite of a better structure, the progress is fragile and it is necessary to consolidate it. The social, technological and ethical dimensions had negative influence on the trends of sustainability and should be considered as priorities in the actions of management. The aspects identified as strategic to improve the possibilities of sustainability of the activity were: encouraging the "fattening" activity of fattening of oysters as well as the replacement of the forms of sale box and desmariscada by production of oysters in dozens ; limiting the entry to the activity; restrainting the illegal commercialization and the processing technology and expanding the user s participation in the management of the activity.