O cultivo da cana-de-açúcar em aleias: produtividade agrossilvicultural e influências sobre o agroecossistema
Pereira, Virgílio de Almeida
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Sugarcane plantations are increasing in Brazil motivated by the demand of the sugar industry and the energetic sector. Sugarcane monocultures simplify the landscape and disconnect natural ecosystems. The inclusion of native trees in the canebrake, changing the matrices into an alley cropping system, is a new proposal that consider the environment beyond production. In order to assess the environmental effects in agroforestry was raised sugarcane productivity and development of trees in three crops (2009/10, 2010/11 and 2011/12), as well as the timber volume and carbon sequestration produced by the system at the end of the year 2012 and a bird survey during 2011 and 2012 in an experimental area of 1,957 hectares. Was found orderly development of tree species. Schizolobium parahyba present a significant mortality, but had the largest wood production thus coming to the same conclusion in relation to carbon sequestration, which are 3 times those of the Handroanthus spp. and 2 times the Cedrela fissilis. There was no change in the sugarcane productivity related to the distance line planting was the alley, with only a drop productivity in the range of 58 m cultivation. Birds are important bioindicators; trees contributed to the increased diversity of birds, being Schizolobium parahyba the arboreal species of most relevant importance. The spacing between alleys with the greatest diversity of birds was to 29 m. It is concluded that it is technically possible deployment agroecosystem proposed, without agronomic production damage of cane sugar; the 2 smaller bands cultivation (29 m and 43.5 m) are the most suitable; among tree species Schizolobium parahyba was the one with the best results in the short term, since the issue of mortality could be remedied with proper management or replanting.