Balanço de carbono e atividade enzimática na decomposição aeróbia e anaeróbia de três macrófitas aquáticas em diferentes temperaturas
Passerini, Mariana Duó
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Macrophytes constitute the set of plants that evolutionarily returned to live in aquatic environments. They are widely distributed in the world and are characterized by a type of vegetation with high rates of primary production. Decomposition rates of these plants are influenced by biotic (i.e. decomposition community) and abiotic (i.e. temperature, dissolved oxygen, ion concentration) factors. Thus, were analyzed during the in vitro decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes with different habits of life (Eichhornia azurea, Eleocharis sp. e Salvinia auriculata): the carbon balance and the mass loss, the activities of the enzymes cellulase (C1 and Cx), xylanase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase and its influences on the decomposition of lignocellulosic compounds; and temporal variations of pH, conductivity, degree of aromatization and the content of C:N:P in the dissolved fraction of the chamber of decomposition at different temperatures and under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. For this, chambers of decomposition were prepared with dried plants in a sample of water from the dam of the Beija-Flor (municipality of Luís Antônio, SP - Brazil) fragments. Incubations were kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and 4 temperatures (15, 20, 25 e 30 oC). A first-order kinetic model was adopted to describe and compare the kinetics of decomposition of macrophytes. The result analysis concluded that due to heterogeneity of debris, decomposition had biphasic pattern of mass loss, with labile/soluble fraction (COPls ≈ 15.4; 10.6 and 10.7 % for E. azurea, Eleocharis sp. and S. auriculata, respectively) and refractory ( CO ≈ 84.2; 89.4 and 89.0% for E. azurea, Eleocharis sp. and S. auriculata, respectively). Soluble/labile fraction showed mass loss coefficients higher (1.4; 2.0 and 1.0 dia-1 for E. azurea, Eleocharis sp. and S. auriculata, respectively) than the refractory fraction (0.0009; 0.0034 and 0.0014 dia-1 for E. azurea, Eleocharis sp. and S. auriculata, respectively). Both extrinsic factors (i.e. temperature and dissolved oxygen) as well the chemical composition of the plant influenced the decomposition process. Extrinsic fatoress, however, acted so as to lead to decomposition, accepting the hypothesis tested. The habit of life not directly influenced the mass loss.