Ictiofauna do arquipélago de currais (Paraná - Brasil): complexidade estrutural dos costões rochosos e análise comparativa com um módulo recifal artificial.
Pinheiro, Pedro Carlos
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With the purpose of analyzing the ictiofauna of the natural environment of the Archipelago of Currais, located in the coast paranaense, and of an artificial reef installed in the proximities of the islands, the different studies were developed presented in the form of four chapters. The chapter I had as objective describes the space variation in the distribution and abundance of fish among four zones geomorphologics of the rocky islands of the archipelago and in the artificial module. The most abundant families were Pomacentridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Sparidae and Labrisomidae. The similarity analysis between the abundance and the areas showed that were not significant the differences for the slabs and shelf and the module recifal. The depth and exhibition degree to the agitated sea were the variables responsible physics for the heterogeneity of the abundances of the species in the areas of the outlying shore, slabs and shelf, windward rocky and module recifal. The differences in equitability terms and wealth of species can be due to the same variables. The inverse analysis showed that were few characteristic species in each grouping, therefore the differences among the areas seem to contemplate to the dominance of certain species. The categories dominant trophics were planktophagous and herbivores, which were significantly different among the areas. In the most shallow areas (slabs and shelf) and with high exhibition to the conditions of the sea (windward barrier reef) the herbivores and omnivorous prevailed, while in the deep ones (module recifal, windward rocky and sharp crags) the most abundant were the planktophagous. The carnivores showed significant differences among the protected areas (slabs and shelf). In the chapter II the variation nictemeral of the three rocky islands was just approached of the archipelago. The quali-quantitative results showed the distribution width and partition of niches among the species. The significant differences observed among the samplings of the day and night were evident due to the largest number of species captured during the night, moment of the cycle in that appeared represented all of the species found in the work. In the samplings of the day, they were significantly more abundant the species Anisotremus surinamensis, A. virginicus, Holocentrus ascensionis and Stegastes fuscus, while the night ones were characterized by the presence of species active predadors as Serranus flaviventris, Lutjanus analis, Cynoscion jamaicensis, Haemulon steindachneri, Abudefduf saxatilis, Diplodus argenteus, Mycteroperca bonaci and Epinephelus adscensionis. The species that allowed to differentiate the habitats of the day and night were practically the same ones, what demonstrated the great space heterogeneity that it presents the ictiofauna associated to the environments of the archipelago. The chapter III treated of the analysis trophic of the sparid Archosargus rhomboidalis relating with the aspects of the habitat use and predation in one of the islands of the archipelago (Grapirá) and the module recifal. The variation source observed among the two areas sampling presented significant differences among the times of the year. In the Isla Grapirá the most important preys in the autumn were the ascids and the amphipods, while in the winter and spring they were the amphipods. In the area of the artificial reefs, macroalgae and algae were more important in the summer, algae and hydrozoans in the autumn, algae and briozoans in the winter, and copepods harpacticoids and amphipods gammarids in the spring. A. rhomboidalis can be considered a species generalist euriphagic that feeds of a wide spectrum of preys. In the chapter IV the recruitment in the module recifal was analyzed by the categorization of the lengths of the most abundant species. The ictiofauna was analyzed along the temporary gradient with the objective of evaluating the efficiency of the attractiveness or of the productivity of the recruitment of fish. The results indicated that there were not significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative contribution of individual subadults or juvenile late for long periods in the time in the module recifal. The structure seems to work as atrator and concentrator of adult fish coming from close rocky bottoms. The factors that could determine the character attractive-concentrador for adult individuals it was the structural drawing and the geographical location where the module recifal was implanted. The originating from larval flow the masses of water of the Continental Platform and of the Bay of Paranaguá seemingly doesn't favor the larval establishment and the recruitment in the module recifal.