O discurso da competência para o trabalho e a educação em tempos neoliberais: a história reeditada como farsa?
Zorzal, Marcos Freisleben
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By the present study we investigated the production and spread of the discourse about competence, as for its repercussions on the education as well on the work in Brazil. In order that, we situated our attention upon the years of the Fernando Henrique Cardoso government period from the 1990 s, pointed by many researchers like the effective implementation of neoliberal economics, social and educational politics in Brazil and in the world. Our thesis, considering the ultraliberals proposals of inexorable transformations to education and work at the final of XXth century, is that these proposals reedit, by the competence discourse, arguments and proposals equivalents to dominants discourses into circumstances of transformation and capitalist crisis, between the XIXth to XXth transition at the industrial society consolidation peak. That moment represented technical, scientific and administrative developments (the model called fordism-taylorism) and the competitive worker market establishment, circumstances that requesting a new workers category, adequate to the newfangled organization, education and productive icons. However, despite of similarity of both discourses in terms of mutations in the work processes and to the role attributed to schooling with market goals, we defend in this research that the ultraliberal argue that the problem of unemployment, social precarization and social exclusion are attribute to worker disqualification or incompetence through presumed contemporary production innovations, actually they dissimulate and legitimate, ideologically, what the own capitalism, in its contemporary structural crisis, unavoidably create. To subside our proposal, we proceed a comparative analysis between the two periods in question, taking as base the reflections of Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci and Karl Polanyi toward the economic, cultural and educational transformations in the context of supremacy of liberal ideal of self-regulated market about the wide secularized social interests, that is, when the market, factorial component of society, transform the own society in its factorial component. After this, we will proceed, in the context in which it is establish the trade school and the arrival of fordism on the first third part of XXth century, reflections in which we confront analysis of contemporary authors about the Brazilian politic-economic and educational ultra liberation phenomenon. Considering this, the question that guide us and which we intent answer could be formulated in this manner: the competence discourse as imperative to the actual work and education, in a context of technological transformation and structural crisis of capital-work relation, could be reediting discursive elements of the transformations observed at the end of XIXth century, in way to legitimate the actual negative consequences in form of a dissimulation of reality or, in Marxian terms, as a historical farce? The analysis of the two periods of capitalism indicate us that the Hegelian-Marxian postulate of historical repetition become plausible by means of the ultraliberal renascence observed since the end of the XXth century.