Pessoas com deficiência no mercado de trabalho: implicações da Lei de cotas
Lobato, Beatriz Cardoso
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The disabled people s right to work, guaranteed by the Brazilian constitution, resulted in the effective inclusion of these people in the labor market. In order to ensure this right it was created compensatory benefits, the affirmative action, which under the right to work, provided a reservation of vacancies for people with disabilities in the formal labor market. This research assessed the implications of this legislation to create job opportunities for disabled people and whether those opportunities are guided by the paradigm of inclusion, encouraging the recruitment and retention of people with different levels and categories of disability in the workplace. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with ten officials of the sector of Human Resources and twelve employees with disabilities. The interviews were record, transcribed in full and qualitatively analyzed by the analysis of content procedure. The results demonstrated that companies hire people with disabilities according to the requirement imposed by law and, especially, as a result of surveillance conducted by the Public Ministry of Labor and justify the difficulty in hiring these people by the lack of education, professional qualification and the need to adequacy of the company to receive them. In practice, these needs come before the requirements of qualification and the pre-selection of the categories of disabilities acceptable by the company, make the people using a wheelchair the most excluded. Among the participating companies, only three reported having conducted some sort of adjustment, given the need for the person hired by restricting the subsequent hiring people with the same type of disability or with disabilities that do not involve in new adaptations. For people with disabilities the law resulted in increased opportunities, but not in recognition of their potential for work, which favors its hiring, but does not create effective conditions for the development of their work. It was conclude that the Law of quotas fulfills its role in generating employment opportunities, but needs to be evaluated, since it does not allow the employment of disabled people in their various categories and levels of commitment and does not encourage the adequacy of these companies to receive people. In this sense, it points up the need for articulate efforts of different actors and social resources such as special education institutions, municipal programs aimed at drawing up actions that address the needs resulting from a process of inclusion in the workplace.