Sinais sugestivos de transtorno déficit de atenção e hiperatividade de crianças com histórico de nascimento prematuro extremo e baixo peso
Pretti, Liziane Cristina
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Children born premature and extreme birth weight are more likely to have cognitive, neuropathological and behavioral changes such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early identification of ADHD is important because it is known that the effects caused by this disorder in school and personal lives may pass into adulthood, and the social and educational impact can cause those students requiring specialized educational assistance. In this sense, the present study aimed at identifying early signs suggestive of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children at 3 years of age with a history of extreme preterm birth and low birth weight. The sample comprised 29 children with a history of extreme prematurity and low birth weight with 3 years old now, enrolled in municipal schools. Participants were first characterized with the CCEB (Economic Classification Criterion Brazil) to homogenize the sample. After, were evaluated with the SDQ questionnaire version Pa 3/4 years (for the parents) and version Pr 3/4 years (for teachers). We also used the Denver II screening test in order to evaluate the overall development of these children and relate to behavioral findings. From the statistical correlation - Pearson Correlation - the data we found that there was a significant correlation between the variables IG with hyperactivity subscale, indicated by SDQ Pa (R= -,465*), correlation between IG and birth weight with the hyperactivity subscale, indicated by SDQ Pr ( R= -,528**; R= -,429*, respectivamente). All these correlations were significantly negative which confirms findings in the literature, that is, the lower gestational age and birth weight, the greater are the chances of having behavioral problems suggestive of ADHD. It was also verified that parents and teachers rated similarly children's development. It is concluded that children with a history of preterm birth and low birth weight have signs suggestive of ADHD at 3 years of age, and that the performance of screening for early detection of these signals facilitates therapeutic intervention and can thereby reduce the performance impact academic school with a history of extreme preterm birth and low birth weight.