Ergonomia e projeto: Contribuições da Teoria de Solução de Problemas Inventivos (TRIZ)
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The ergonomics actions demand design processes for working conditions, products, processes or working organization. However, the integration of ergonomics into the design processes of organizations is still new. Several reasons account for this, whose common point rests on the failure of the models and practices to trigger design processes from the results generated by the analysis. It is recommended that these processes are developed within a paradigm of social construction in order to facilitate the participation of social actors and stimulate cooperation and incorporation of diverse knowledge involved. From a qualitative analysis, essentially descriptive, of ergonomics and design approaches, the research aims at defining an integrated approach, from the exploration of the contributions of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) and its tools to design process in ergonomics. The tools of TRIZ, in the context of ergonomics, can be applied at all stages of the design process, encouraging and equipping analysis, scenario building, anticipating conflicts and developing solutions. The proposed approach covers five main points including (i) system analysis / problem and constraints identification, (ii) analysis of the situation from the perspective of ideality, comparing past, present and future. (iii) determination of parameters and contradictions by building scenarios, (iv) use of the matrix of contradictions to explore the most relevant inventive principles, and (v) thereafter, the collective construction of the solution, its implementation and reassessment. The research also proposes a matrix of contradictions along with 39 ergonomics parameters. Built on the traditional TRIZ matrix structure and keeping the original inventive principles, the matrix enables the exploration of ideas to solve the contradictions found in the course of the project. The results are a conceptual and a operative starting point for the integration of ergonomics to design processes.