Estratégias tecnológicas em cadeias de suprimentos da indústria automobilística brasileira: estudos de caso em empresas do segmento de motores de automóveis.
Cerra, Aline Lamon
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The prime objective of this work is to identify and analyze the technological strategies (TSs) of two car-engine assemblers and some of their first and second-tier suppliers, discussing the relations between the technological strategies of each assembler and its suppliers in each supply chain studied and, as a second objective, comparing the two sets (combinations) of technological strategies adopted in those chains. Two hypotheses were formulated: (1) The automotive assemblers set up in Brazil have different TSs regarding the development and production of engines; (1a) To each type of TS is assigned a necessary effort to maintain and develop the several technological capabilities, either internally or in partnership (together) with suppliers; (2) The sets of TSs in the chains are different. The technological strategies vary among the suppliers, and must be distinct the influences each assembler exerts on each supplier. To analyze such hypotheses, a literature review on the issues concerning this theme was carried out, as well as a field research. Such research comprised case studies in two chains, led by assemblers with distinct strategies, with different levels of vertical integration, representing distinct configurations. The case studies were conducted in the two assemblers and some of their suppliers (from the first and second tiers, in each chain), based on semi-structured interviews. The results indicate that, in general, the strategies undertaken by those assemblers are very similar and oriented towards local competitiveness. The differences occur as a result of their supply chain structures and their supplying policies. The assembler with a greater number of small-sized suppliers, with limited technological capabilities, must make a greater effort to develop them and to assure their adequate performance. The assembler with a greater number of large-sized suppliers, more technologically capable, must make a relatively bigger effort to negotiate (the transactions) with the suppliers, but a much lower effort to develop them. The technological strategies of the suppliers vary in the degree of ownership and technological complexity of product and process, as well as in the fact of transferring (or not) technological knowledge to their suppliers.