Óxidos mistos de magnésio e alumínio contendo lítio e cálcio como catalisadores para transesterificação etílica
Castro, Cínthia Soares de
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This work deals with the investigation on the production of heterogeneous catalysts of base surface properties applied for ethylic transestérification, aiming the biodiesel production. In the first and second chapters of this thesis, oxide catalysts containing Li were prepared from incipient wet impregnation method on different supports [SÍO2, MgO, Y-AI2O3 and Mg(Al)0 obtained from MgAl hydrotalcite], using optimized calcination conditions. The materials were characterized by XRD, N2 Fisissorption, ICP-OES, SEM, XPS and TPD of C02. The Li+ addition to the catalysts caused morphologic changes, surface area reduction and increased the oxides crystallite size. On the other hand, Li+ caused a steep increase in the oxide reactivities due to the increase in the base sites strength. These materials were evaluated as catalysts in the model transestérification reaction between methyl acetate and ethanol, under mild reaction conditions. The higher the lithium content in the Li/Mg(Al)0 catalysts, the higher the activity and the different studied supports deeply affected their performances for transestérification. The lithium reaction with the supports Y-AI2O3 and SÍO2 led to lithium aluminates and silicates, inactive for reaction. However, Li/MgO and Li/Mg(Al)0 showed to be very active, mainly due to the presence of large amounts of strong base sites (low coordination O2' anions). Li/Mg(Al)0 exhibited conversion even higher than that obtained for Li/MgO. Nevertheless, Li+ leaching was detected in the solution, which resulted in some homogeneous reaction. Indeed, the stability of the Li+ containing catalysts must be improved in order to be able to be used in the biodiesel production. In the third chapter of this thesis, Ca based oxides, namely Ca/MgAl, were synthesized by impregnation of different contents of Ca nitrate onto MgAl hidrotalcita, and followed by calcination. These materials were characterized by XRD, N2 Fisissorption, SEM-EDS and TPD of CO2 revealing that they are mainly comprised of a oxides mixture [CaO + Mg(Al)0] and that the surface CaO is partially hydrated and carbonated. These materials were also evaluated as catalysts in the model transestérification reaction between methyl acetate and ethanol. By increasing the Ca content on the catalysts, the activity is enhanced, probably because of the formation of a highly basic CaO, well dispersed over the support matrix. The Ca/Mg(Al)0 catalysts can be reused for at least 5 batch runs, with low Ca2+ leaching to the solution. Therefore, the Ca/Mg(Al)0 revealed to be promising candidates as heterogeneous catalysts for ethylic biodiesel production.