Hidrólise controlada de proteínas de soro lático usando tripsina e quimotripsina imobilizadas em diferentes suportes.
Galvão, Célia Maria Araújo
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This work is part of a global project whose aim is the production of a cheese whey proteins hydrolysate with controlled composition. The process is composed by sequential hydrolysis of the whey proteins using trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxipeptidase A (CPA). The phenylalanine (Phe) and the other aromatic amino acids released after action of CPA may be removed from the product, providing an adequate source of proteins for phenylketonurics patients and a final product with more pleasant flavor. After its separation, a final step of hydrolysis using the non-specific protease AlcalaseÒ produces a mixture of small peptides with better properties than a mixture of free amino acids. However, the use of enzymes in industrial processes requests its immobilization and stabilization. We have studied in this work the first two hydrolysis stages aiming to reach the following general objectives: to prepare derivatives of trypsin (on sepabeads, chitosan and agarose) and chymotrypsin (just on agarose), to study the sequential hydrolysis of the cheese whey proteins with trypsin and chymotrypsin immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose gel and to investigate the kinetic of the hydrolysis of these proteins with immobilized chymotrypsin. Trypsin-sepabeads derivatives were prepared on resins modified with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) or modified with IDA and copper. Yield of immobilization of approximately 100% and complete recovery of the enzyme on supports were obtained. Factors of stabilization in relation to the soluble enzyme from 90 times (Sepabeads- IDA-Cu2+) to 138 times (Sepabeads-IDA), at 55ºC, were reached and the trypsin- (Sepabeads-IDA) derivative showed to be more efficient in the casein hydrolysis than the trypsin-glyoxyl-agarose one. Trypsin-chitosan derivatives were prepared on coagulated matrices in NaOH solution (0.1 or 1N) and activated with glutaraldehyde (pH 7 or 10) or glycydol. Chitosan derivatives whose matrices were activated with glutaraldehyde reached 100% of yield of immobilization, while the ones activated with glycydol reached just 60%. In all the studied cases it was possible to recover completelly the enzyme on supports until the enzymatic load of 20mgEnz./gGel. Derivatives prepared on coagulated matrices in NaOH 0.1 or 1N and activated at pH 7 resulted in 100% of yield of immobilization and complete recovery of the enzyme on gel until the enzymatic load of 40mgEnz./gGel. At 40ºC, the glutaraldehyde-chitosan derivatives were approximately 460 times more stable than the soluble enzyme; at 70ºC, the glyoxyl-chitosan derivative showed to be approximately 13 times more stable than the glutaraldehyde-chitosan derivative. The trypsin-chitosan derivatives presented the highest hydrolysis activity at 50ºC and pH 9 (40ºC and pH 9 for the soluble enzyme). The best trypsin-chitosan derivative (coagulated in NaOH 0.1M and activated at pH 7) showed similar performance to the soluble enzyme in the hydrolysis of the cheese whey proteins (hydrolysis degree (DH) of 12%). Trypsin and chymotrypsin derivatives immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose gel were prepared following a protocol available in the literature (agarose activated with glycydol and oxidized with NaIO4 to obtain 75µmoles of aldehyde/mL of gel, at 25oC and pH 10.05). The factors of stabilization obtained for trypsin (3920 times) and chymotrypsin (14535 times) are according with results already published and were confirmed through acid hydrolysis of the soluble enzymes and stabilized derivatives. These experiments showed that 64.76% and 72.15% of the lysines present in the trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively, were involved in the enzyme-support attachment. In consequence of this stabilization, the derivatives showed maximum hydrolysis activity of synthetic substrates in temperatures and pH higher than the obtained for the soluble enzymes (trypsin - 85ºC and pH 11; chymotrypsin - 70ºC and pH 10.5). Hydrolysis of the cheese whey proteins assays using trypsin were developed varing the DH from 0 to 12%. After that, the obtained mixtures were hydrolysates with chymotrypsin and carboxipeptidase A, sequentially, using long times and high enzymes concentrations. The results showed that removal of Phe of approximately 100% was obtained in the following conditions: DHtrypsin of 0%, DHchymotrypsin of 12.4% (3.05mgEnz./mL of solution - 10 hours) and 10 hours of reaction with CPA (200UHPHE/ gProtein), producing 15.5% of peptides with molecular mass (MM) lower than 1046Da. The kinetic of the hydrolysis of the whey proteins was studied and the apparent kinetic parameters of the Michaelis-Menten model taking into account competitive inhibition by the substrate ( app max V , app m K and app S K ) were calculated by initial rates method using a derivative with high enzymatic load - 40mgEnz./gGel. In this work, the substrate concentration was defined in terms of peptides bonds that could be cleaved by chymotrypsin. The effectiveness factor found for reactions developed in presence of difusional effects was 0.78. The long-term assays (10 hours) were perfectly fitted by a model where the first five minutes were described by the first order kinetic (V=kN) and times higher than five minutes were represented by a function of P/No (V=f(P/No)).