Estudo do potencial de sequestro de carbono por restauro florestal em matas ripárias de APPS rurais da UGRHI do Tietê-Jacaré no município de São Carlos - SP
Dias, Roseli Mendonça
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The intense greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere, including Carbon Dioxide (CO2), are the main causes intensifying climate changes. According to Brazil s Forest Code, riparian forests are part of the Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) of water bodies, and their primary function regards their preservation, thereby contributing to biodiversity. Moreover, they contribute to minimize the greenhouse effect by promoting carbon sequestration (CO2). Thus, their preservation and/or recovery are the focal point of great concern. The objective of this study is to determine the potential for forest carbon sequestration in riparian forests of PPAs under the Unit for Water Resources Management of the Tietê-Jacaré (UGRHI 13) in the city of São Carlos SP, Brazil. The recuperation of the riparian areas was declared as high priority by the Committee of the Watershed UGRHI 13 in its Watershed Plan. Within this plan, forestry projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) represent an incentive for reforesting the PPAs of the water bodies of UGRHI 13 and other UGRHIs. The methodology used in this work consisted in the use of visual interpretation of satellite images, field samplings and the development of procedures to classify the degradation levels of the riparian forests into three categories: closed-canopy, open shrubland and predominantly herbaceous. The methodology also included applying a model to determine the Potential Biomass Index (PBI), estimating the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) density, calculating the financial yield from the income of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) for the forests in the study area, and determining the tCO2e value. For the closed canopy category, approximately 1.372 ha of PPAs with potential sequestration of 175.43tCO2e/ha were found, which would yield CDM of R$456.10 with the current price per tonne in April 2013; for the open shrubland category, approximately 1.573 ha of the PPAs, with a potential of 212.97tCO2e/ha and yield of R$553.70; and lastly, for the predominantly herbaceous category, 388 ha of PPAs, with a sequestration potential of 243.80tCO2e/ha and yield of R$633.90. This indicates that by restoring the still young and degraded forests of these PPAs, they will sequester significant amounts of carbon until they reach their maximum size. The financial revenues obtained by forest carbon sequestration would bear part of the costs of restoring the riparian forests in the PPAs. With the tCO2e values at R$26.00 for the closed canopy category, R$58.00 for the open shrubland category and R$84.00 for the predominantly herbaceous category, companies interested in offsetting their GHG emissions could buy the RECs at the values stipulated, adding their image to the carbon sequestration projects.