Contribuição para o emprego de portas modulares em projetos de alvenaria estrutural
Grabarz, Regina Candeloro
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The construction industry often related to high handwork production processes, which results in waste of physical and financial resources. The current great demand for new buildings leads to the need of industrialized elements, components and technologies in order to push the evolution of the construction process. In view of these aspects, modular coordination stands out as an excellent strategic tool since it aims to organize the dimensions of buildings, in order to reduce the variety of sizes in which the elements and components are produced, allowing its ready installation without the need of any modification. The structural masonry stands out in this direction since its design is guided by modular coordination, allowing the application of this concept and thereby to rationalize the subsystems of larger impact of the building: the partitions and the building structure. However, although this system contributes to the modular coordination, other construction components and elements must also have modular measures, being the element door an example. With that in mind, this research seeks to contribute to the dimensional standardization of "opening doors with one leaf" through the diagnosis of modular dimensions suitable for structural masonry designs. Initially, it was diagnosed the possible modular dimensions for the door space. The analyses resulted in the possible horizontal space before de door installation of widths with final 1 (61, 71, 81, cm) and 6 (66, 76, 86, cm). The vertical modular space is equal to 221 cm before any other construction element is added and 217 cm considering a regularization capping and floor tile over the slab (nominal). The width of wood door leaf is currently commercialized with dimensions ending with 0 (60, 70, 80, cm) and 2 (62, 72, 82, cm). These dimensions were diagnosed suitable to modular masonry design when combined with door post thickness of 2 and 2,5 cm respectively. However the 210 cm height, available in the market, proved to be inadequate. With this dimension a construction solution is need to fill the gap between the door and masonry, which is not wanted and becoming very undesirable today. The study leaded to the conclusion that a door leaf height of 212,5 cm would be ideal. Also, although it is possible wood-doors of 0 and 2 endings widths (current standard) changing the standards to width with endings dimensions of 3 (63, 73, 83, ... cm) and 8 (68, 78, 88, cm) would make possible to have the same width standard for door leafs of several materials (wood, metal). The metal doors of steel and aluminum are available in the market in several different. Although most of them are suitable for the modular dimensions the proposals are made here to standardize and reduce the number of different dimensions. The first one has lower impact, just recommends to eliminated some of the marketed dimensions standardizing to width endings with 1 (61, 71, 81, cm) and in height 211 cm. The other suggestion has higher impact, but allows the same dimensions for doors of different materials, thus having only one dimension standard for door leafs regardless of its material.