Cinemática do tronco, pelve, quadril e joelho, torque excêntrico e ativação muscular do quadril em homens e mulheres com e sem a dor patelofemoral
Nakagawa, Theresa Helissa
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Although the incidence of patellofemoral pain (PFP) is higher in females, it also occurs quite commonly in males. Previous studies have demonstrated differences in lower limb kinematics, strength and muscular activation between males and females. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that the trunk movement in the frontal plane might influence the knee joint. However, information about trunk and lower limbs biomechanics between males and females with PFP is sparse. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to evaluate trunk, pelvis, hip and knee kinematics, hip eccentric torque and muscular activation in males and females with and without PFP during functional activities. Eighty volunteers were evaluated and equally divided into four groups: Females PFP, Female Controls, Males PFP and Male Controls. The 3D kinematics was evaluated using an electromagnetic tracking system (Ascension Technology Corporation, Burlington, VT), the electromyographic signals were collected with a Bagnoli eightchannel system (Delsys Inc., Boston, MA) and the hip eccentric torque was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Multi-Joint System 2; Shirley, NY). Males and females with PFP demonstrated higher ipsilateral trunk lean, contralateral pelvic drop, hip adduction and knee abduction during single leg squat and step-down task, when compared to the controls. These kinematic alterations were accompanied by reduced hip abduction and external rotation eccentric torque. As opposed to the males, females with PFP also showed greater hip internal rotation and reduced gluteus medius activation during single leg squat. In addition, greater hip adduction, hip internal rotation and knee abduction were associated with greater pain level and reduced function in individuals with PFP. Despite many similarities in findings for males and females with PFP, there may be specific sex differences that warrant consideration in future studies and when clinically evaluating and treating females with PFP.