Efeito Aharonov-Bohm : extensões auto-adjuntas e espalhamento
In this work we present a study of topics related to the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) e®ect. Our framework is that of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and we use the point of view of mathematical physics. (1) We study the solenoid of finite length and zero radius and compare their self- adjoint extensions with the known case of the solenoid of infinite length and also of zero radius in the plane. (2) By considering an infinitely long cylindrical solenoid of radius greater than zero, mainly in the plane, we present a classification of all self-adjoint SchrÄodinger operators (i.e., the possible boundary conditions on the solenoid border) that mathematically could characterize the AB operator, whose domains are contained in the natural space of twice weakly di®erentiable functions (and, of course, also square integrable). (3) We then consider the traditional Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions on the solenoid border and calculate and compare their scattering matrices and cross sections. Hopefully this could be used to experimentally select one of such extensions. (4) Finally, we discuss a theoretical mechanism we propose to select and so justify the usual AB hamiltonian with Dirichlet boundary conditions on the solenoid. This is obtained by way of increasing sequences of finitely long solenoids together with a natural impermeability procedure; further, it is shown that both limits commute. Such rigorous limits are in the strong resolvent sense.