Estudo fitoquímico de Helietta puberula (Rutaceae), Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae) e busca de um processo de microencapsulação de compostos ativos visando o controle de formigas cortadeiras.
Simote, Simone Yasue
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This work involved the bioassay-guided study of Helietta puberula (Rutaceae) e Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae). The biossays were carried out with leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens rubropilosa, antifungal activity against the symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus and inhibition of the enzymatic activity of pectinases. The results obtained with extracts and fractions showed that the selected plants were promising source of compounds in the control against leafcutting ants. The phytochemical investigation of active extracts and fractions allowed the isolation of 31 compounds of differences types such as: steroids ( β- sitosterol, stigmasterol, sitostenone, stigmastenone, campestenone and 3 β-O-3 β- D-glucopyranosil sitosterol); triterpenes of the tirucalane type (22S,3 α- dihydroxytirucal-7,24-dien-23-one), esqualene (eurilene) and lupanic (lupeol and lupenone); quinoline alkaloids (N-metil-4-methoxy-2-quinolone), furoquinolinic alkaloids (dictamine, γ-fagarine, kokusaginine, maculine, flindersiamine), acridonic alkaloids (arborinine); canthinonic alkaloids (4,5- dimethoxycanthin-6-one and 5-methoxycanthin-6-one) and of the β-carboline types of alkaloids (7-hidroxy-ethyl β-carboline and 7-hidroxy-1,1 -propyonate of methyl β-carboline); flavonoids (flavone, isosakuranetine and 5,7,3 ,4 ,5 - pentamethoxyflavone); one stilbene (22); coumarins (7-hidroxycoumarin, 6,7- dimethoxycoumarin, 6-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxycoumarin, 3 -(1 ,1 - dimethylalyl)-isoescopoletin, methylether-graveliferone); quassinoids (glaucarubolone and glaucarubinone) and two cinnamic acids derivatives (methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate and geranyl 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate). Among these substances, furoquinoline and canthinonic alkaloids, flavone and the quassinoids were active against the L. gongylophorus fungus; inhibiting 100% of its grownth and also showed inhibition against leaf-cutting ants survivel biossay. The study of chitosan as matriz on the microencapsulation process; to the encapsulation of the bioactive compound, reduction of the mammalian toxicity, protection Humans and also the environment; showed very promising results, but more study is necessary mainly to reduce the size of the particle