Preparação e caracterização de blendas de PANI/ABS
Cristovan, Fernando Henrique
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Polyaniline (PANI) chemical synthesis was monitored in situ by means of electrochemical impedance, open circuit potential (Voc) and mass variation. We verify that the final properties of the polymer could be practically defined after inflection point in the potential profile. The impedance data were decisive to understand this behavior, showing only a small change after inflection point. Impedance results and mass variations during the synthesis contributed to understand the induction mechanisms that occur in the initial stages of the polymerization process. Also, it was performed an investigation on the influence of different variables (temperature, monomer:oxidant molar ratio, oxidant, pH value, use of inert salts at high concentrations) in the PANI chemical synthesis process as well as in its physicochemical properties. In this work, it was estimated the characteristic points of PANI through the Voc measurements during the chemical synthesis, based on an experimental design methodology. This methodology allowed an efficient mapping of PANI synthesis process as well as its interactions with each variable previously described. The results indicated that the oxidant employed in the synthesis influences in the final chemical and physical properties of this polymer. The studies performed on the final properties of PANI were the degree of oxidation and electric resistivity. Moreover, the yield the degree of polymerization was also evaluated. The experimental design methodology was also used in order to understand the influence of the preparation conditions on the final properties of the blends in poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS) and polyaniline obtained by the co-dissolving components in a common organic solvent. The variables evaluated were the PANI content in the blend, m-cresol:chloroform rate (solvent ratio), dopant (DBSA or CSA) and acrylonitrile content in the ABS. The results showed that these variables are able to change significantly the flexibility and electric conductivity of the blends. On the other hand, the dopant used mainly influences in the conductivity, suggesting that the DBSA is the better for the development of PANI/ABS blends more conductive. After better prepare conditions of the blends, the percolation threshold was established at around 3 wt% of PANI, forming a flexible blend with conductivity of approximately 3 S.cm-1. The optical properties of the blend films were characterized by UV Vis-NIR. The conduction mechanisms of the blends were investigated using a dc electric conductivity in the range from 80 to 320 K. Using the Mott s theory, it was found that the conductivity in the blends is a threedimensional variable range hopping mechanism. The Mott s temperature values, density of states at the Fermi energy, average hopping distance and barrier height for the blends were calculated and discussed in this work. Also, two possible technological applications were proposed to the PANI/ABS system, including: composite varistors and antistatic or electromagnetic protection of electronic devices. The varistors were prepared with 30% of PANI, which showed a low rupture voltage at around 10 V and a non linearity coefficient of approximately 9,2. On the paint shape and when deposited on cardboard, this material can be employed as protector system of electronic devices. Another important characteristic is the conductivity of this material, which is controlled by the number of paint layers deposited on the cardboard.