Perfil cromatográfico e análise multivariada para o controle de qualidade de amostras comerciais do gênero Phyllanthus (quebra-pedra)
Martins, Lucia Regina Rocha
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This work present the development and application of methods by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to the quality control of vegetable samples known as stone breaker , that correspond to Phyllanthus species, two of them entered in Brazilian Pharmacopoeia: P.niruri L. and P. tenellus Roxb. A chromatographic profile analytical method was developed and validated, using HPLC with diode array detection (DAD), for the analysis of aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus authentic samples, which consisted of six species grown under controlled conditions in two different sites (Campinas and São Carlos, Brazil) and also not cultivated samples, collected in 27 cities of São Paulo state. Chemometric methods of exploratory analysis were used to interpret the chromatographic informations, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarquical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Classification models (SIMCA, KNN e PLS-DA) were developed and validated and demonstrated that the Phyllanthus species can be differentiated from each other through their chromatographic profiles and multivariate analysis. The chromatographic method was applied in the analysis of 25 stone breaker commercial samples and their authenticity was determined by the classification models: the results showed that most products are produced with the P. tenellus species, although they are marketed as P. niruri; two samples was determined as adulteration since they were not classified as any Phyllanthus species. A chemical marker was purified by semi-preparative HPLC-UV from the crude aqueous extract of P. niruri specie; spectroscopy characterization determined its structure as corilagin, an hydrolisable tannin. An analytical method by HPLC-UV was developed and validated for quantification of this marker in extracts of Phyllanthus species and stone breaker commercial samples. For the cultivated samples, there was significant variability in the concentration of corilagin according to the place of cultivation and the time of year; among the non-cultivated P. tenellus samples, there was large differences in the marker concentration, result of the influence of different habitats in secondary metabolism of the plant. The corilagin quantification therefore was not feasible to determine the authenticity/quality of commercial samples, but can be used in the monitoring of Phyllanthus cultivated species. In two commercial samples the marker was not detected, which characterized as adulterated samples of stone breaker .