Desenvolvimento de procedimentos eletroanalíticos para a determinação de antioxidantes e corantes em produtos alimentícios empregando um eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro
Medeiros, Roberta Antigo
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The following topics were investigated in this thesis: a) the electrochemical response of a boron-doped diamond electrode, after different electrochemical pretreatments, for two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole BHA and butylated hydroxytoluene BHT) and three food colorants (tartrazine TT, sunset yellow SY, and brilliant blue BB); b) the development of electroanalytical methods for the simultaneous determination of these antioxidants and colorants, using pulse voltammetric techniques (SWV and DPV) and the multiple pulse amperometric technique coupled to a FIA system (MPA-FIA). In general, for the antioxidants as well as the food colorants, lower redox potentials and higher intensities of peak current were obtained after the BDD electrode underwent cathodic pretreatment on its surface. Better analytical conditions for the determination of both antioxidants in 0.01 mol L-1 KNO3 (30% v/v ethanol; pHcond. = 1.5) were obtained using SWV, which was selected for the simultaneous determination of BHA and BHT, when a 300 mV separation between their oxidation peak potentials was attained. The corresponding analytical curves were linear in the concentration range 5.99 × 10-7 to 1.01 × 10-5 mol L-1, with detection limits of 1.45 10-7 mol L-1, for BHA, and 2.47 10-7 mol L-1, for BHT. The simultaneous determination of these antioxidants was also carried out using MPA-FIA, applying a dualpotential waveform: Edet.1 = 850 mV / 200 ms and Edet.2 = 1150 mV / 200 ms vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L-1 KCl). Only BHA is oxidized at Edet.1, while both BHA and BHT are oxidized at Edet.2; thus, IBHA = IEdet.1 and IBHT = IEdet.2 - IEdet.1. The respective analytical curves presented a good linearity in the investigated concentration ranges (4.80 10-8 - 3.00 10-6 mol L-1, for BHA, and 6.80 10-7 6.80 10-5 mol L-1, for BHT), with detection limits of 3.00 10-8 mol L-1, for BHA, and 4.00 10-7 mol L-1, for BHT. DPV was used for the simultaneous voltammetric determination of the colorant pairs TT and SY or BB and SY; in the 0.10 mol L-1 H2SO4 supporting electrolyte, the separation between the reduction peak potentials was 150 mV, for TT and SY, and 189 mV, for BB and SY. The corresponding analytical curves were obtained in the concentration ranges 9.99 × 10-8 - 5.66 × 10-6 mol L-1, for TT, and 2.00 × 10-8 - 4.76 × 10-6 mol L-1, for SY, 5.96 × 10-7 - 9.90 × 10-6 mol L-1, for BB, and 9.99 × 10-8 - 4.76 × 10-6 mol L-1, for SY. The obtained detection limits were 6.27 × 10-8 mol L-1 and 1.31 × 10-8 mol L-1 for the pair TT and SY, respectively, and 1.43 × 10-7 mol L-1 and 2.56 × 10-8 mol L-1, for the pair BB and SY, respectively. An MPA-FIA procedure for the simultaneous determination of these pairs of colorants was also developed. The dual-potential waveform was the following: Edet.1 = -150 mV / 400 ms, when only SY is reduced, and Edet.2 = -450 mV / 100 ms vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L-1 KCl), when both TT and SY or BB and SY are reduced. Detection limits of 2.55 10-6 mol L-1 and 8.10 10-7 mol L-1 were obtained for colorant pair TT and SY, respectively, and 3.52 10-6 mol L-1 and 8.54 10-7 mol L-1, for the pair BB and SY, respectively. Finally, the proposed methods were successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of those antioxidants and colorants in food products; the obtained results were satisfactory and similar to those obtained using high-performance liquid chromatography methods adopted as comparative methods.